zeki velidi togan

zeki velidi togan, 10 aralık 1890 tarihinde başŸkurt ilinde isterlitamak'a bağŸlı küzen köyünde doğŸdu. daha ilk mederse tahsilini yaparken bir yandan da özel rusça dersleri alıyordu. ã–ğŸretmen olan annesinden farsça öğŸrenmeyi de ihmal etmiyordu. 1902 yılında orta tahsil için ãœtek'e bulunan dayısı habib neccar'ın medresesine gitti. buradaki öğŸrenimi sırasında arapça dersler alarak dil bilgisini gelişŸtirdi.

1908'de köyünden kaçarak kazan'a gelip burada özel dersler aldı. bu arada katanov ve aşŸmarin gibi bilginlerle tanışŸtı. 1909 yılında mezun olduğŸu kasımiye medresesine â“türk tarihi ve arap edebiyatı tarihi muallimi┠oldu. 4 yıl süren bu öğŸretmenliğŸi sırasında 1911 sonlarında yayınladığŸı türk ve tatar tarihi adlı kitabı sayesinde meşŸhur olmaya başŸladı. bu eserin iyi yankıları sayesinde kazan ãœniversitesi arkeoloji ve tarih cemiyeti'ne aza seçildi.

1913'te fergane'ye, 1914'te buhara'ya araşŸtırmalar yapmak için gönderildi. bu seyahat neticelerine ait hazırlamışŸ olduğŸu raporlar başŸta petersburg arkeoloji cemiyeti olmak üzere kazan ve taşŸkent arkeoloji cemiyetleri mecmualarında yayınlandı. bu arada prof. katanov'un şŸimdi istanbul ãœniversitesi türkiyat enstitüsü'nün esas nüvesini teşŸkil edecek olan kitaplarının türkiye'ye gönderilmesine vesile oldu.

daha sonra rus millet meclisi duma'da ufa müslümanlarının temsilcisi olarak bulunmak üzere petersburg'a gitti. bilimsel çalışŸmalarına siyasã® çalışŸmalarını da eklemişŸ oluyordu. bu sırada bolşŸevik ihtilã¢li patlak verince o da türklerin durumunun düzelmesi için mücadeleye girişŸti.

bolşŸevik ihtilã¢li'nden 22 gün sonra 29 kasım 1917'de başŸkurt ilinin muhtariyeti ilan edildi. ã–renburg'u 18 şžubat 1918'de işŸgal eden sovyetler onu tutukladılarsa da 7 haziran'da hapisten kaçtı. başŸkurt hükümeti kurulduğŸunda togan, harbiye nazırı oldu. bundan sonra lenin, stalin ve troçki ile defalarca görüşŸütü fakat olumlu sonuç alamayınca türkistan'a çekilip orada mücadeleye karar verdi.

1920-23 yıllarında türkistan'da amansız bir mücadeleye girişŸti ise de başŸarılı olamadı. basmacı hareketi'nin içinde bulundu. türkistan millã® birliğŸi'nin kurucusu ve ilk başŸkanıdır.

paris, londra ve berlin'deki bir çok orta-asya tarihçisi onunla çalışŸmak istemesine rağŸmen, devrin türkiye milli eğŸitim bakanı hamdullah suphi, fuat köprülü, rıza nur, yusuf akçura'nın istekleri sayesinde türkiye'den davet aldı.
20 mayıs 1925'te geldiğŸi türkiye'de maarif vekã¢leti telif ve tercüme encümeni'ne tayin edilmişŸtir. o zamanki ankara'nın kitap açısından yetersiz olması yüzünden kendi isteğŸi ile istanbul darülfünun'u türk tarihi müderris muavinliğŸi'ne tayin edildi.
bundan sonra istanbul ve anadolu kütüphanelerinde hummalı çalışŸmalarına başŸladı. fakat, 1932'de ı. türk tarih kongresi'nde tıp doktoru reşŸit galip'in sunduğŸu orta asya'da iç deniz olduğŸu ve bunun sonradan kuruduğŸu konusu hakkındaki tebliğŸini eleşŸtirince, togan aleyhine bir kamuoyu oluşŸtu. kendisine takınılan bu kötü tutum üzerine ülkeyi terk etme kararını verdi. 8 temmuz 1932'de istifa ederek viyana'ya gitti.

1935'te doktora çalışŸmalarını bitirdikten sonra bonn ãœniversitesi'nde, 1938'de göttingen ãœniversitesi'nde ders verdi. 1939'da millã® eğŸitim bakanı'nın daveti üzerine tekrar türkiye'ye geldi. istanbul ãœniversitesi'nde umumã® türk tarihi kürsüsü'nü kurdu.
ikinci dünya savaşŸı'nın sonlarına doğŸru türkiye'de sovyetler aleyhine faaliyet ve turancılık suçundan tutuklanıp mahkeme edildi. 10 yıl hapse mahkum edildiyse de askerã® mahkeme kararı bozdu ve togan beraat etti.
1948'de yeniden döndüğŸü üniversitedeki görevine ölümüne kadar devam etti. 1951'de istanbul'da toplanan xxı. müsteşŸrikler kongresi'ne başŸkanlık etti. bu onun bilimsel alandaki şŸöhretini çok daha artırdı.
zeki velidi togan 26 temmuz 1970'te istanbul'da vefat etti.

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english biography

ord. prof. dr. zeki velıdı togan

zeki velidi togan was born in kuzen village of ısterlitamak of başŸkurt province on 10 december 1890. his surname, togan, derives from his fifth generation ancestor ıs togan. his father was ahmet şžah, his mother was ummu'l-hayat. he received private russian lessons while he was studying in primary school. he also learned persian from his mother, who was a teacher. he went to the school of his maternal uncle habib neccar in utek for secondary education in 1902. he received arabic lessons during his education there, and improved his language knowledge.

ın 1908, he escaped his village and went to kazan and received private lessons. ın the meantime, he met scientists such as katanov and asmarin. ın 1909, he became the "turkish history and arabic literature history ınstructor" of kasimiye school he had graduated from. during his four-year teacher period, he became famous with his book named türk ve tatar tarihi (turkish and tatar history) he published in late 1911. he was elected as a member to the archeology and history community of kazan university thanks to the good repercussions of the book.

he was sent to fergane in 1913 and buhara in 1914 to conduct investigations. the reports he prepared on the outcomes of these travels were published in magazines of archeological communities of kazan and tashkent, and petersburg archeological community, in particular. he also caused sending of books of prof. katanov, which constituted the main core of turkology institute of ıstanbul university, to turkey.then he went to petersburg as the representative of ufa muslims in russian parliament duma. thus, he added political efforts to his scientific investigations. he began to struggle for correction of the conditions of the turks when bolshevik revolution took place. 22 days after bolshevik revolution, autonomy of baskurt province was proclaimed on 29 november 1917. although soviets who occupied orenburg on 18 february 1918 arrested him, he escaped from prison on 7 june. when baskurt government was established, togan became the minister of war. he decided to go to turkistan and struggle there after he had talked to lenin, stalin and trocki several times and understood their betrayal.

between 1920-23, although he started a cruel struggle in turkistan, he could not succeed. he took part in basmaci movement. he is the founder and first president of turkistan national union. after the three-year struggle he could not conclude, he and his gun friend abdulkadir ınan went to ıran in 1923. when they arrived in meşŸhed, they discovered important books in ravza library, which no orientalist had seen before. ibn-i fadlan seyahatnamesi, which is one of the most valuable books of turkish cultural history, was among the books found. then he went to kabul university of afghanistan and conducted investigations.

although they went to ıstanbul in november 1923 from ındia bombay, since they were not allowed to enter because of english intolerance, turned back like they had come on ship to marseille and from there, paris. he established both scientific and political relations in europe as from late 1923. he met many famous orientalists in this period. he established a community named "turkistan national union" in berlin. although many middle asia historian in paris, london and berlin wanted to work with him, he was invited from turkey due to the wills of turkish national education minister of the day, hamdullah suphi, fuat koprulu, rıza nur, and yusuf akçura.

he was appointed to publication and translation council of ministry of education in turkey, where he came on 20 may 1925. he was appointed to ıstanbul university turkish history ınstructor assistant with his own will because ankara in that day was not sufficient in books. then he started working hard in ıstanbul and ankara libraries. however, on his criticizing the speech presented by medical doctor reşŸit galip in 1st turkish history congress in 1932 that there had been an inner sea in middle asia and that it dried later on, public opinion turned against him. he decided to leave the country on such bad attitude against him. he resigned on 8 july 1932and went to vienna.
after he finished his master degree studies in 1935, he gave lectures in bonn university and göttingen university in 1938. ın 1939, he went to turkey on invitation of national education minister. he established general turkish history professorship in ıstanbul university.

on 8 april 1940, he married nazmiye hanim, daughter of omer bey from romania. he had two children, his daughter ısenbike and his son sübidey... toward the end of 2nd world war he was arrested and tried on accusation of turanism and activities against soviets in turkey. although he was sentenced to 10 years in prison, the military court quashed the decision and acquitted togan. he continued his service in the university he turned back in 1948. he chaired 21th müsteşŸrikler congress which gathered in ıstanbul in 1951. this increased his scientific reputation much more. he passed away on 26 july 1970 in ıstanbul.

zeki velidi togan continued his publication activities which he started first in 1911 until his death with great speed and much efforts. zeki velidi togan has more than 337 published studies. ıt was one of his habits to introduce to world scientific environments any historical source he found in his scientific investigations and travels (documents, handwritten book, miniature, etc.).

he has approximately 40 volumes of published individual books. 12 of them are bulky ones, and more than 10 of hem are the published notes of the lessons he taught in the university. others are characterized as booklets. his first published book, turk ve tatar tarihi made him famous in kazan and russia, but his book which introduced him to world scientific environments is undoubtedly ibn-i fadlan seyahatnamesi.

on the other hand, tarihte usul, is the first methodical book written in turkey for history science. another book, umumi türk tarihine girişŸ, is not only the only one in its field, but also important in terms of its outlining the general framework of turkish history. horezmce tercümeli mukaddemetü'l-edep, bugünkü türk ili türkistan ve yakın tarihi, on the miniatures ın ıstanbul libraries, hatıralar, oğŸuz destanı, kur'an ve türkler are the best evidences showing his high level in science.

his memorials he wrote one year before his death contains not only his struggles which lasted his whole life but important documents for our close history. ıt is doubtless that publication of a cultural treasury such as oghuz epic, which is one of our greatest national epics, was a great gain for turkish scientific environments. ın his book named bugünkü türk ili türkistan ve yakın tarihi, he told close history of turkish provinces in middle asia and their losing their independence. he explained his opinions on today's situation of world turks and their future in his book named türklüğŸün mukadderatı ãœzerine. the published notes of lessons he taught in the universities contain in general turkish hıstory in mongol period, mongol ınvasion, genghis khan and timur periods, however, they are also related to subjects such as karahanli period, başŸkırtlar history, asia history and opinion and cultural life in middle and near asia in 19th and 20th century.

togan, who published 91 articles in domestic and foreign scientific investigation magazines, conducted subject investigation in approximately 20 of them. ın the majority of his articles, he dealt with source identification which is his most evident feature. his reputation among orientalists in particular rose due to his such features. ın his critics more than 14, he aimed at promotion of studies conducted in western science environments to turkey, and did not refrain from criticizing them as necessary. nearly half of his articles in scientific magazines are in foreign language. there are also ones written in russian and persian besides ones written in popular western languages such as english, german and french. ıt is seen that 9 of his speeches the deceased teacher delivered in international congresses were published in congress minutes. all of those speeches are in relation with the field of expertise of the teacher and contain identification of documents which is his method of study. ıt is notable that all of the delivered speeches were in international congresses and were published in popular western languages such as english, german and french.

39 articles in 4 encyclopedias with international scientific importance were issued by togan. most of them were also in foreign language and others were in turkish. 12 articles are about biography, two are about turkish tribes such as başŸkurt and hazar, and others are about geographical location (city, river etc.) he made use of western literature about the relevant articles written under the light of arabic and persian historical sources written under the light of arabic and persian historical sources. all of the subjects are very important with regard to middle asian history.

he wrote approximately 109 articles in monthly and weekly magazines. togan, who tried to handle scientific subjects in such magazines until years of 1940, then wrote his political ideas on some issues, his replies to some people and his memorials. ıt is understood that deceased teacher wrote 48 articles in daily newspapers. he wanted to illuminate the future in his letters which contained his ideas in majority by dealing with historical issues sometimes. he worked out the international congresses in his newspaper articles and tried to inform turkish public vote about them. he did not refrain from disclosing the truths be believed in some issues mis-reflected to the society.

the deceased teacher also had books on ıslamic scholars he prepared but could not find the opportunity to publish, apart from his books on his field of expertise ıslam and turkish and mongol history. some of them are: timur ve oğŸulları tarihi (history of timur and his sons), el-birunã®'ye dair (on el-biruni), başŸkırt tarihi (başŸkırt history), ali şžir nevaã®: hayatı ve eserleri (ali şžir nevai: life and works), reşŸideddin: hayatı ve eserleri (reşŸideddin: life and works), sakaların tarihi (history of sakas), türklerin menşŸe efsaneleri (myths on turks' origin), resimlerle türkistan (turkistan with pictures).

kaynak: http://www.ozturkler.com



hakkında yazılanlar

zeki velidi unutulmadı
zaman 7 temmuz 2001

20. yüzyılın önemli şŸarkiyatçılarından ord. prof. zeki velidi togan (1891-1970), doğŸduğŸu topraklarda unutulmadı. başŸkortostan cumhurbaşŸkanı danışŸmanı emir yoldaşŸbayev, uzun bir süredir yürüttüğŸü zeki velidi çalışŸmalarını kitaplaşŸtırdı.

yoldaşŸbayevâ’in kaleme aldığŸı, â“ã‡ağŸdaşŸlarının hatıralarında bilinen ve bilinmeyen yönleriyle zeki velidi┠isimli kitap, başŸkortostan ve rusyaâ’da piyasaya sürüldü.
xxxxxx




zeki velıdı togan
zeki velidi togan was born in kuzen village of ısterlitamak of başŸkurt province on 10 december 1890. his surname, togan, derives from his fifth generation ancestor ıs togan. his father was ahmet şžah, his mother was ummu'l-hayat. he received private russian lessons while he was studying in primary school. he also learned persian from his mother, who was a teacher. he went to the school of his maternal uncle habib neccar in utek for secondary education in 1902. he received arabic lessons during his education there, and improved his language knowledge.

ın 1908, he escaped his village and went to kazan and received private lessons. ın the meantime, he met scientists such as katanov and asmarin. ın 1909, he became the "turkish history and arabic literature history ınstructor" of kasimiye school he had graduated from. during his four-year teacher period, he became famous with his book named türk ve tatar tarihi (turkish and tatar history) he published in late 1911. he was elected as a member to the archeology and history community of kazan university thanks to the good repercussions of the book.

he was sent to fergane in 1913 and buhara in 1914 to conduct investigations. the reports he prepared on the outcomes of these travels were published in magazines of archeological communities of kazan and tashkent, and petersburg archeological community, in particular. he also caused sending of books of prof. katanov, which constituted the main core of turkology institute of ıstanbul university, to turkey.then he went to petersburg as the representative of ufa muslims in russian parliament duma. thus, he added political efforts to his scientific investigations. he began to struggle for correction of the conditions of the turks when bolshevik revolution took place. 22 days after bolshevik revolution, autonomy of baskurt province was proclaimed on 29 november 1917. although soviets who occupied orenburg on 18 february 1918 arrested him, he escaped from prison on 7 june. when baskurt government was established, togan became the minister of war. he decided to go to turkistan and struggle there after he had talked to lenin, stalin and trocki several times and understood their betrayal.

between 1920-23, although he started a cruel struggle in turkistan, he could not succeed. he took part in basmaci movement. he is the founder and first president of turkistan national union. after the three-year struggle he could not conclude, he and his gun friend abdulkadir ınan went to ıran in 1923. when they arrived in meşŸhed, they discovered important books in ravza library, which no orientalist had seen before. ibn-i fadlan seyahatnamesi, which is one of the most valuable books of turkish cultural history, was among the books found. then he went to kabul university of afghanistan and conducted investigations.

although they went to ıstanbul in november 1923 from ındia bombay, since they were not allowed to enter because of english intolerance, turned back like they had come on ship to marseille and from there, paris. he established both scientific and political relations in europe as from late 1923. he met many famous orientalists in this period. he established a community named "turkistan national union" in berlin. although many middle asia historian in paris, london and berlin wanted to work with him, he was invited from turkey due to the wills of turkish national education minister of the day, hamdullah suphi, fuat koprulu, rıza nur, and yusuf akçura.

he was appointed to publication and translation council of ministry of education in turkey, where he came on 20 may 1925. he was appointed to ıstanbul university turkish history ınstructor assistant with his own will because ankara in that day was not sufficient in books. then he started working hard in ıstanbul and ankara libraries. however, on his criticizing the speech presented by medical doctor reşŸit galip in 1st turkish history congress in 1932 that there had been an inner sea in middle asia and that it dried later on, public opinion turned against him. he decided to leave the country on such bad attitude against him. he resigned on 8 july 1932and went to vienna.
after he finished his master degree studies in 1935, he gave lectures in bonn university and göttingen university in 1938. ın 1939, he went to turkey on invitation of national education minister. he established general turkish history professorship in ıstanbul university.

on 8 april 1940, he married nazmiye hanim, daughter of omer bey from romania. he had two children, his daughter ısenbike and his son sübidey... toward the end of 2nd world war he was arrested and tried on accusation of turanism and activities against soviets in turkey. although he was sentenced to 10 years in prison, the military court quashed the decision and acquitted togan. he continued his service in the university he turned back in 1948. he chaired 21th müsteşŸrikler congress which gathered in ıstanbul in 1951. this increased his scientific reputation much more. he passed away on 26 july 1970 in ıstanbul.

zeki velidi togan continued his publication activities which he started first in 1911 until his death with great speed and much efforts. zeki velidi togan has more than 337 published studies. ıt was one of his habits to introduce to world scientific environments any historical source he found in his scientific investigations and travels (documents, handwritten book, miniature, etc.).

he has approximately 40 volumes of published individual books. 12 of them are bulky ones, and more than 10 of hem are the published notes of the lessons he taught in the university. others are characterized as booklets. his first published book, turk ve tatar tarihi made him famous in kazan and russia, but his book which introduced him to world scientific environments is undoubtedly ibn-i fadlan seyahatnamesi.

on the other hand, tarihte usul, is the first methodical book written in turkey for history science. another book, umumi türk tarihine girişŸ, is not only the only one in its field, but also important in terms of its outlining the general framework of turkish history. horezmce tercümeli mukaddemetü'l-edep, bugünkü türk ili türkistan ve yakın tarihi, on the miniatures ın ıstanbul libraries, hatıralar, oğŸuz destanı, kur'an ve türkler are the best evidences showing his high level in science.

his memorials he wrote one year before his death contains not only his struggles which lasted his whole life but important documents for our close history. ıt is doubtless that publication of a cultural treasury such as oghuz epic, which is one of our greatest national epics, was a great gain for turkish scientific environments. ın his book named bugünkü türk ili türkistan ve yakın tarihi, he told close history of turkish provinces in middle asia and their losing their independence. he explained his opinions on today's situation of world turks and their future in his book named türklüğŸün mukadderatı ãœzerine. the published notes of lessons he taught in the universities contain in general turkish hıstory in mongol period, mongol ınvasion, genghis khan and timur periods, however, they are also related to subjects such as karahanli period, başŸkırtlar history, asia history and opinion and cultural life in middle and near asia in 19th and 20th century.

togan, who published 91 articles in domestic and foreign scientific investigation magazines, conducted subject investigation in approximately 20 of them. ın the majority of his articles, he dealt with source identification which is his most evident feature. his reputation among orientalists in particular rose due to his such features. ın his critics more than 14, he aimed at promotion of studies conducted in western science environments to turkey, and did not refrain from criticizing them as necessary. nearly half of his articles in scientific magazines are in foreign language. there are also ones written in russian and persian besides ones written in popular western languages such as english, german and french. ıt is seen that 9 of his speeches the deceased teacher delivered in international congresses were published in congress minutes. all of those speeches are in relation with the field of expertise of the teacher and contain identification of documents which is his method of study. ıt is notable that all of the delivered speeches were in international congresses and were published in popular western languages such as english, german and french.

39 articles in 4 encyclopedias with international scientific importance were issued by togan. most of them were also in foreign language and others were in turkish. 12 articles are about biography, two are about turkish tribes such as başŸkurt and hazar, and others are about geographical location (city, river etc.) he made use of western literature about the relevant articles written under the light of arabic and persian historical sources written under the light of arabic and persian historical sources. all of the subjects are very important with regard to middle asian history.

he wrote approximately 109 articles in monthly and weekly magazines. togan, who tried to handle scientific subjects in such magazines until years of 1940, then wrote his political ideas on some issues, his replies to some people and his memorials. ıt is understood that deceased teacher wrote 48 articles in daily newspapers. he wanted to illuminate the future in his letters which contained his ideas in majority by dealing with historical issues sometimes. he worked out the international congresses in his newspaper articles and tried to inform turkish public vote about them. he did not refrain from disclosing the truths be believed in some issues mis-reflected to the society.

the deceased teacher also had books on ıslamic scholars he prepared but could not find the opportunity to publish, apart from his books on his field of expertise ıslam and turkish and mongol history. some of them are: timur ve oğŸulları tarihi (history of timur and his sons), el-birunã®'ye dair (on el-biruni), başŸkırt tarihi (başŸkırt history), ali şžir nevaã®: hayatı ve eserleri (ali şžir nevai: life and works), reşŸideddin: hayatı ve eserleri (reşŸideddin: life and works), sakaların tarihi (history of sakas), türklerin menşŸe efsaneleri (myths on turks' origin), resimlerle türkistan (turkistan with pictures).

kaynak: http://www.ozturkler.com
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