1181. (Tematik)
@1386 doktorları sevmiyorlarmış. ayaklı banknot gözüyle bakıyorlarmış benden söylemesi.
devamını gör...
1182. (Tematik)
sabaha kadar buca'da nöbetçiyiz gençler..ama harbiden nöbetçiyiz elde silah vücut dik gözlerden ateş de çıkıyor..her yol var..

yeni çağlar eczanesi nöbette,

hap var ot var hap var ot var gel abula geeeeeelll ...
devamını gör...
1186. (Tematik)
@1390 bu formatsavarda neredeyse normal formatın bile dışına çıkılmıyor. saçmalıklar bile çok da saçma değil annıycaan. ayrıca @1389 da enjektör felan vardır. çok fena mutluluk veriyormuş öyle diyorlar.
devamını gör...
1187. (Tematik)
communist theory generally states that the only way to solve the problems existing within capitalism is for the working class, referred to alternatively as 'the proletariat', who collectively constitute the main producer of wealth in society, and who are perpetually exploited and marginalised by the capitalist class, to overthrow the capitalist system in a wide-ranging social revolution. this revolution, in the theory of most individuals and groups espousing communist revolution, usually involves an armed insurrection. the revolution espoused can be explained by theorists in many different ways, and usually depends on the environment in which the particular communism theory originates; for example, the chinese revolution was both described as, and ultimately involved, military combat between the chinese red army and the chinese nationalist army, while the vietnamese revolution was largely guerilla warfare between massive numbers of vietnamese supporters of the vietnam people's army and various western armies, in particular the final stage against the united states armed forces. the cuban revolution was meanwhile essentially a coup d'etat that did not involve intensive pitched battles or wide-scale military conflict between fulgencio batista's soldiers and those of fidel castro and che guevara—in fact, castro did not even believe a vanguard party was necessary in cuba's case to begin with, a view boosted by the fact that batista, by the time of the actual armed conflict between cuban revolutionaries and his soldiers, was significantly weak in terms of his administration's political solvency.

no matter what specific form the communist revolution takes, its aim is for the working class to replace the exploiter class (usually bourgeoisie) as the ruling class to establish a society without class divisions, called socialism, as a prelude to attempting to achieve the final stage of communism.[1]

a variety of different forms of communism have developed, each based upon the ideas of different political theorists, usually as additions or interpretations of various forms of marxism, the collective philosophies of karl marx.[5] marxism-leninism is the synthesis of vladimir lenin's contributions to marxism, such as how a revolutionary party should be organised; trotskyism is leon trotsky's conception of marxism, influenced by lenin, and meanwhile, maoism is mao zedong's interpretation of marxism to suit the conditions of china at that time, and is fairly heavy on the need for agrarian worker support as the engine for the revolution, rather than workers in the urban areas, which were still very small at that point.

pure communism is a term sometimes used to refer to the stage in history after socialism, although just as many communists use simply the term "communism" to refer to that stage. the classless, stateless society that is meant to characterise this communism is one where decisions on what to produce and what policies to pursue are made in the best interests of the whole of society—a sort of 'of, by, and for the working class', rather than a rich class controlling the wealth and everyone else working for them on a wage basis. in this communism the interests of every member of society is given equal weight to the next, in the practical decision-making process in both the political and economic spheres of life. karl marx, as well as some other communist philosophers, deliberately never provided a detailed description as to how communism would function as a social system, nor the precise ways in which the working class could or should rise up, nor any other material specifics of exactly how to get to communism from capitalism. in the communist manifesto, marx does lay out a 10-point plan advising the redistribution of land and production to begin the transition to communism, but he ensured that even this was very general and all-encompassing. it has always been presumed that marx intended these theories to read this way specifically so that later theorists in specific situations could adapt communism to their own localities and conditions.

the origins of communism are debatable, and there are various historical groups, as well as theorists, whose beliefs have been subsequently described as communist. some theorists have considered hunter-gatherer societies to adhere to a form of primitive communism, whilst historical figures like plato and thomas more have been described as espousing early forms of the ideology. the communist movement as it is known today largely took shape in the nineteenth century, when it was developed.[5] in the twentieth century, revolutions led to openly communist governments taking power in many countries, leading to the creation of states like the soviet union, the people's republic of china and the republic of cuba.
as a social movement

in modern usage, the word communism is still often used to refer to the policies of self-declared socialist governments comprising one-party states which were single legal political party systems operating under centrally planned economies and a state ownership of the means of production, with the state, in turn, claiming that it represented the interests of the working classes. a significant sector of the modern communist movement alleges that these states never made an attempt to transition to a communist society, while others even argue that they never achieved a legitimate socialism. most of these governments based their ideology on marxism-leninism, but they did not call the system they had set up "communism", nor did they even necessarily claim at all times that the ideology was the sole driving force behind their policies: mao zedong, for example, pursued new democracy, and lenin in the early 1920s enacted war communism; later, the vietnamese enacted doi moi, and the chinese switched to socialism with chinese characteristics. the governments labeled by other governments as "communist" generally claimed that they had set up a transitional socialist system. this system is sometimes referred to as state socialism or by other similar names.

communism as a political belief system and a social movement stands in contrast to all this, and is often referred to as "the communist movement"; it exists independently of any particular theorist, just as various other social theories and even religions can be interpreted and espoused in radically divergent ways. in this sense, therefore, communism can be thought of as, in many cases, a resistance movement against capitalism, analogous to anarchism, social anarchism and similar militant far-left beliefs. especially as compared to the somewhat stultified old equivalences of the word "communism" with the "evil empire" and oppressive dictatorships that used the language of communism largely to justify their own existence and policies, communist beliefs on their own are often claimed by their adherents to be a very positive, populist ideology endorsing "people power" actions, ideas, and events, and of being categorically opposed to oppression and alienation at the hands of any elite (see also the article on far left, which is also known as the "radical left"). most such communists get personally offended, therefore, when anti-communists continually use the histories of communist states as means by which to claim from the outset that the whole of communist ideas is discredited and invalid.

in the 20th and 21st centuries, communists in certain areas of the world continue to participate in, and sometimes even to have leadership positions in, industrial unions. other places in the world have parliamentary democracies with mps in them who identify as communists and try to pass left-leaning laws and bills. sometimes a communist party within a diverse parliament will hold a minority position but still be influential in the overall governmental operations. still other places have no participation by any communists within any mainstream political discourse at all (a notable example of this would be the government of the united states). the pink tide in latin america, meanwhile, has consisted of democratic elections that led to communist and communist-inspired governments being elected in that area of the world, such as in bolivia and venezuela, although the degree to which these governments actually follow policies that are radical left enough to be considered communist, is fiercely contested by the left more generally (the governments themselves proclaim a "socialism of the 21st century"). today, although communism is a less influential political force compared to what it was in much of the twentieth century,[6] there are still powerful communist and aligned socialist movements in many parts of the world, notably continental europe, southern asia (southeast asia, and latin and south america.

additionally, since the economic crisis of 2008 there has been a resurgence of interest in communist theory and theoreticians[citation needed]. a diverse range of theories persist amongst prominent globally known people such as slavoj zizek, michael parenti, alain badiou and other radical left thinkers who proclaim themselves communists; they and others like them are examples of present-day well-known figures in the modern communist movement.

in the schema of historical materialism, communism is the idea of a free society with no division or alienation, where mankind is free from oppression and scarcity. a communist society would have no governments, countries, or class divisions. in marxist theory, the dictatorship of the proletariat is the intermediate system between capitalism and communism, when the government is in the process of changing the means of ownership from privatism to collective ownership.[7] in political science, the term "communism" is sometimes used to refer to communist states, a form of government in which the state operates under a one-party system and declares allegiance to marxism-leninism or a derivative thereof.[citation needed]
marxist schools of communism
main article: list of communist ideologies
“ communism is the riddle of history solved, and it knows itself to be this solution. ”

—karl marx, 1844[8]

self-identified communists hold a variety of views, including marxism-leninism, trotskyism, council communism, luxemburgism, anarchist communism, christian communism, and various currents of left communism. however, the offshoots of the marxist-leninist interpretations of marxism are the most well-known of these and had been a driving force in international relations during the last quarter of the 19th century and most of the 20th century up to around 1989 and what historians refer to as "the collapse of communism."[9] however, other forms of communism worldwide continue to exist in the ideologies of various individual labor movement trade unions worldwide, particularly in europe and the third world, and also in communist parties that continue to espouse the ultimate need for communist revolution.

most communists today tend to agree that the remaining communist states, such as the people's republic of china, vietnam and especially north korea (which has replaced marxism-leninism with juche as its official ideology), have nothing to do with communism, whether as practiced currently within leftist resistance movements and parties, or in terms of the ideologies and programmes held by those movements.[10][11][12][13]
the communist manifesto
main article: marxism

like other socialists, marx and engels sought an end to capitalism and the systems which they perceived to be responsible for the exploitation of workers. whereas earlier socialists often favored longer-term social reform, marx and engels believed that popular revolution was all but inevitable, and the only path to socialism and communism.

according to the marxist argument for communism, the main characteristic of human life in class society is alienation; and communism is desirable because it entails the full realization of human freedom.[14] marx here follows georg wilhelm friedrich hegel in conceiving freedom not merely as an absence of restraints but as action with content.[15] according to marx, communism's outlook on freedom was based on an agent, obstacle, and goal. the agent is the common/working people; the obstacles are class divisions, economic inequalities, unequal life-chances, and false consciousness; and the goal is the fulfilment of human needs including satisfying work, and fair share of the product.[16][17]

they believed that communism allowed people to do what they want, but also put humans in such conditions and such relations with one another that they would not wish to exploit, or have any need to. whereas for hegel the unfolding of this ethical life in history is mainly driven by the realm of ideas, for marx, communism emerged from material forces, particularly the development of the means of production.[15]

marxism holds that a process of class conflict and revolutionary struggle will result in victory for the proletariat and the establishment of a communist society in which private property and ownership is abolished over time and the means of production and subsistence belong to the community. (private property and ownership, in this context, means ownerships of the means of production, not private possessions).[18] marx himself wrote little about life under communism, giving only the most general indication as to what constituted a communist society. it is clear that it entails abundance in which there is little limit to the projects that humans may undertake.[citation needed] in the popular slogan that was adopted by the communist movement, communism was a world in which each gave according to their abilities, and received according to their needs. the german ideology (1845) was one of marx's few writings to elaborate on the communist future:
“ "in communist society, where nobody has one exclusive sphere of activity but each can become accomplished in any branch he wishes, society regulates the general production and thus makes it possible for me to do one thing today and another tomorrow, to hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening, criticise after dinner, just as i have a mind, without ever becoming hunter, fisherman, herdsman or critic."[19] ”

marx's lasting vision was to add this vision to a theory of how society was moving in a law-governed way towards communism, and, with some tension, a political theory that explained why revolutionary activity was required to bring it about.[15]

in the late 19th century, the terms "socialism" and "communism" were often used interchangeably. however, marx and engels argued that communism would not emerge from capitalism in a fully developed state, but would pass through a "first phase" in which most productive property was owned in common, but with some class differences remaining. the "first phase" would eventually evolve into a "higher phase" in which class differences were eliminated, and a state was no longer needed. lenin frequently used the term "socialism" to refer to marx and engels' supposed "first phase" of communism and used the term "communism" interchangeably with marx and engels' "higher phase" of communism.[20]

these later aspects, particularly as developed by vladimir lenin, provided the underpinning for the mobilizing features of 20th century communist parties.

leninism is the political movement developed by vladimir lenin, which has become the foundation for the organizational structure of most major communist parties. leninists advocate the creation of a vanguard party led by professional revolutionaries in order to lead the working class revolution. leninists believe that socialism will not arise spontaneously through the natural decay of capitalism and that workers are unable to organize and develop socialist consciousness without the guidance of the vanguard party. after taking power, vanguard parties seek to create a socialist state dominated by the vanguard party in order to direct social development and defend against counterrevolutionary insurrection. the mode of industrial organization championed by leninism and marxism-leninism is the capitalist model of scientific management pioneered by fredrick taylor.

marxism-leninism is a version of leninism merged with classical marxism adopted by the soviet union and most communist parties across the world today. it shaped the soviet union and influenced communist parties worldwide. it was heralded as a possibility of building communism via a massive program of industrialization and collectivisation. despite the fall of the soviet union and the 'eastern bloc' (meaning communist countries of eastern and central europe), many communist parties of the world today still lay claim to uphold the marxist-leninist banner. marxism-leninism expands on marxists thoughts by bringing the theories to what lenin and other communists considered, the age of capitalist imperialism, and a renewed focus on party building, the development of a socialist state, and democratic centralism as an organizational principle.

lenin adapted marx's urban revolution to russia's agricultural conditions, sparking the "revolutionary nationalism of the poor".[21] the pamphlet what is to be done? (1902), proposed that the (urban) proletariat can successfully achieve revolutionary consciousness only under the leadership of a vanguard party of professional revolutionaries—who can achieve aims only with internal democratic centralism in the party; tactical and ideological policy decisions are agreed via democracy, and every member must support and promote the agreed party policy.

to wit, capitalism can be overthrown only with revolution—because attempts to reform capitalism from within (fabianism) and from without (democratic socialism) will fail because of its inherent contradictions. the purpose of a leninist revolutionary vanguard party is the forceful deposition of the incumbent government; assume power (as agent of the proletariat) and establish a dictatorship of the proletariat government. moreover, as the government, the vanguard party must educate the proletariat—to dispel the societal false consciousness of religion and nationalism that are culturally instilled by the bourgeoisie in facilitating exploitation. the dictatorship of the proletariat is governed with a de-centralized direct democracy practised via soviets (councils) where the workers exercise political power (cf. soviet democracy); the fifth chapter of state & revolution, describes it:

". . . the dictatorship of the proletariat—i.e. the organisation of the vanguard of the oppressed as the ruling class for the purpose of crushing the oppressors. . . . an immense expansion of democracy, which for the first time becomes democracy for the poor, democracy for the people, and not democracy for the rich: . . . and suppression by force, i.e. exclusion from democracy, for the exploiters and oppressors of the people—this is the change which democracy undergoes during the transition from capitalism to communism."[22]

the bolshevik government was hostile to nationalism, especially to russian nationalism, the "great russian chauvinism", as an obstacle to establishing the proletarian dictatorship.[23] the revolutionary elements of leninism—the disciplined vanguard party, a dictatorship of the proletariat, and class war.

stalinism was the political system of the soviet union and the countries within the soviet sphere of influence during the leadership of joseph stalin. the term usually defines the style of a government rather than an ideology. the ideology was officially marxism-leninism theory, reflecting that stalin himself was not a theoretician, in contrast to marx and lenin, and prided himself on maintaining the legacy of lenin as a founding father for the soviet union and the future socialist world. stalinism is an interpretation of their ideas, and a certain political regime claiming to apply those ideas in ways fitting the changing needs of soviet society, as with the transition from "socialism at a snail's pace" in the mid-twenties to the rapid industrialization of the five-year plans.

the main contributions of stalin to communist theory were:

the groundwork for the soviet policy concerning nationalities, laid in stalin's 1913 work marxism and the national question,[24] praised by lenin.
socialism in one country, stating that communists should attain socialism in their own country as a prelude to internationalising.
the theory of aggravation of the class struggle along with the development of socialism, a theoretical base supporting the repression of political opponents as necessary.

leon trotsky reading the militant.

trotskyism is the branch of marxism that was developed by leon trotsky. it supports the theory of permanent revolution and world revolution instead of the two stage theory and socialism in one country. it supported proletarian internationalism and another communist revolution in the soviet union, which, under the leadership of stalin, trotsky claimed had become a degenerated worker's state, rather than the dictatorship of the proletariat.

trotsky and his supporters organized into the left opposition and their platform became known as trotskyism. stalin eventually succeeded in gaining control of the soviet regime and trotskyist attempts to remove stalin from power resulted in trotsky's exile from the soviet union in 1929. during trotsky's exile, world communism fractured into two distinct branches: marxism-leninism and trotskyism.[1] trotsky later founded the fourth international, a trotskyist rival to the comintern, in 1938.

trotskyist ideas have continually found a modest echo among political movements in some countries in latin america and asia, especially in argentina, brazil, bolivia and sri lanka. many trotskyist organizations are also active in more stable, developed countries in north america and western europe. trotsky's politics differed sharply from those of stalin and mao, most importantly in declaring the need for an international proletarian revolution (rather than socialism in one country) and unwavering support for a true dictatorship of the proletariat based on democratic principles.

however, as a whole, trotsky's theories and attitudes were never accepted in worldwide mainstream communist circles after trotsky's expulsion, either within or outside of the soviet bloc. this remained the case even after the secret speech and subsequent events critics claim exposed the fallibility of stalin.

maoism is the marxist-leninist trend of communism associated with mao zedong and was mostly practiced within the people's republic of china. khrushchev's reforms heightened ideological differences between the people's republic of china and the soviet union, which became increasingly apparent in the 1960s.

parties and groups that supported the communist party of china (cpc) in their criticism against the new soviet leadership proclaimed themselves as 'anti-revisionist' and denounced the cpsu and the parties aligned with it as revisionist "capitalist-roaders." the sino-soviet split resulted in divisions amongst communist parties around the world. notably, the party of labour of albania sided with the people's republic of china. effectively, the cpc under mao's leadership became the rallying forces of a parallel international communist tendency.
prachanda path
prachanda, giving a speech at the nepalese city of pokhara.

prachanda path refers to the ideological line of the communist party of nepal (maoist). this thought does not make an ideological break with marxism, leninism and maoism but it is an extension of these ideologies totally based on home-ground politics of nepal. the doctrine came into existence after it was realized that the ideology of marxism, leninism and maoism could not be practiced completely as it was done in the past. and an ideology suitable, based on the ground reality of nepalese politics was adopted by the party.

after five years of armed struggle, the party realized that none of the proletarian revolutions of the past could be carried out on nepal's context. so moving further ahead than marxism, leninism and maoism, the party determined its own ideology, prachanda path.

having analyzed the serious challenges and growing changes in the global arena, the party started moving on its own doctrine. prachanda path in essence is a different kind of uprising, which can be described as the fusion of a protracted people's war strategy which was adopted by mao in china and the russian model of armed revolution. most of the maoist leaders think that the adoption of prachanda path after the second national conference is what nudged the party into moving ahead with a clear vision ahead after five years of 'people's war'.

senior maoist leader mohan vaidya alias kiran says, 'just as marxism was born in germany, leninism in russia and maoism in china and prachanda path is nepal's identity of revolution. just as marxism has three facets- philosophy, political economy and scientific socialism, prachanda path is a combination of all three totally in nepal's political context.' talking about the party's philosophy, maoist chairman prachanda says, 'the party considers prachanda path as an enrichment of marxism, leninism and maoism.' after the party brought forward its new doctrine, the government was trying to comprehend the new ideology, prachanda path.
see also: 'people's revolution' in nepal
main article: hoxhaism

another variant of anti-revisionist marxism-leninism appeared after the ideological row between the communist party of china and the party of labour of albania in 1978. the albanians rallied a new separate international tendency. this tendency would demarcate itself by a strict defence of the legacy of joseph stalin and fierce criticism of virtually all other communist groupings as revisionism. critical of the united states, the soviet union, and china, enver hoxha declared the latter two to be social-imperialist and condemned the soviet invasion of czechoslovakia by withdrawing from the warsaw pact in response. hoxha declared albania to be the world's only marxist-leninist state after 1978. the albanians were able to win over a large share of the maoists, mainly in latin america such as the popular liberation army, but also had a significant international following in general. this tendency has occasionally been labelled as 'hoxhaism' after him.

after the fall of the communist government in albania, the pro-albanian parties are grouped around an international conference and the publication 'unity and struggle'.

elements of titoism are characterized by policies and practices based on the principle that in each country, the means of attaining ultimate communist goals must be dictated by the conditions of that particular country, rather than by a pattern set in another country. during tito's era, this specifically meant that the communist goal should be pursued independently of (and often in opposition to) the policies of the soviet union.

the term was originally meant as a pejorative, and was labelled by moscow as a heresy during the period of tensions between the soviet union and yugoslavia known as the informbiro period from 1948 to 1955.

unlike the rest of central and eastern europe, which fell under stalin's influence post–world war ii, yugoslavia, due to the strong leadership of marshal tito and the fact that the yugoslav partisans liberated yugoslavia with only limited help from the red army, remained independent from moscow. it became the only country in the balkans to resist pressure from moscow to join the warsaw pact and remained "socialist, but independent" right up until the collapse of soviet socialism in the late 1980s and early 1990s. throughout his time in office, tito prided himself on yugoslavia's independence from russia, with yugoslavia never accepting full membership of the comecon and tito's open rejection of many aspects of stalinism as the most obvious manifestations of this.

eurocommunism was a trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various western european communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a western european democracy and less aligned to the influence or control of the communist party of the soviet union. such parties were politically active and electorally significant in italy (pci), france (pcf), and spain (pce).[citation needed]

the main theoretical foundation of eurocommunism was antonio gramsci's writing about marxist theory which questioned the sectarianism of the left and encouraged communist parties to develop social alliances to win hegemonic support for social reforms. eurocommunist parties expressed their fidelity to democratic institutions more clearly than before and attempted to widen their appeal by embracing public sector middle-class workers, new social movements such as feminism and gay liberation and more publicly questioning the soviet union. early inspirations can also be found in the austromarxism and its seeking of a "third" democratic "way" to socialism.
libertarian and non-leninist forms of marxism
main article: libertarian marxism

libertarian marxism refers to a broad scope of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian aspects of marxism. early currents of libertarian marxism, known as left communism,[25] emerged in opposition to marxism–leninism[26] and its derivatives, such as stalinism, maoism, and trotskyism.[27] libertarian marxism is also critical of reformist positions, such as those held by social democrats.[28] libertarian marxist currents often draw from marx and engels' later works, specifically the grundrisse and the civil war in france;[29] emphasizing the marxist belief in the ability of the working class to forge its own destiny without the need for a revolutionary party or state to mediate or aid its liberation.[30] along with anarchism, libertarian marxism is one of the main currents of libertarian socialism.[31]

libertarian marxism includes such currents as luxemburgism, council communism, left communism, socialisme ou barbarie, the johnson-forest tendency, world socialism, lettrism/situationism and operaismo/autonomism, and new left.[32] libertarian marxism has often had a strong influence on both post-left and social anarchists. notable theorists of libertarian marxism have included anton pannekoek, raya dunayevskaya, clr james, antonio negri, cornelius castoriadis, maurice brinton, guy debord, daniel guérin, ernesto screpanti and raoul vaneigem.
council communism
main article: council communism

council communism is a far-left movement originating in germany and the netherlands in the 1920s. its primary organization was the communist workers party of germany (kapd). council communism continues today as a theoretical and activist position within both left-wing marxism and libertarian socialism.

the central argument of council communism, in contrast to those of social democracy and leninist communism, is that democratic workers' councils arising in the factories and municipalities are the natural form of working class organisation and governmental power. this view is opposed to both the reformist and the leninist ideologies, with their stress on, respectively, parliaments and institutional government (i.e., by applying social reforms), on the one hand, and vanguard parties and participative democratic centralism on the other).

the core principle of council communism is that the government and the economy should be managed by workers' councils composed of delegates elected at workplaces and recallable at any moment. as such, council communists oppose state-run authoritarian "state socialism"/"state capitalism". they also oppose the idea of a "revolutionary party", since council communists believe that a revolution led by a party will necessarily produce a party dictatorship. council communists support a worker's democracy, which they want to produce through a federation of workers' councils.
rosa luxemburg, prominent left communist critic of leninism
left communism
main article: left communism

left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the communist left, which criticizes the political ideas of the bolsheviks at certain periods, from a position that is asserted to be more authentically marxist and proletarian than the views of leninism held by the communist international after its first and during its second congress.

left communists see themselves to the left of leninists (whom they tend to see as 'left of capital', not socialists), anarchist communists (some of whom they consider internationalist socialists) as well as some other revolutionary socialist tendencies (for example de leonists, who they tend to see as being internationalist socialists only in limited instances).

although she died before left communism became a distinct tendency, rosa luxemburg has heavily influenced most left communists, both politically and theoretically. proponents of left communism have included amadeo bordiga, herman gorter, anton pannekoek, otto rühle, karl korsch, sylvia pankhurst and paul mattick.

prominent left communist groups existing today include the international communist current and the internationalist communist tendency. different factions from the old bordigist international communist party are also considered left communist organizations.
situationist international
main article: situationist international

the situationist international was a restricted group of international revolutionaries founded in 1957, and which had its peak in its influence on the unprecedented general wildcat strikes of may 1968 in france.

with their ideas rooted in marxism and the 20th century european artistic avant-gardes, they advocated experiences of life being alternative to those admitted by the capitalist order, for the fulfillment of human primitive desires and the pursuing of a superior passional quality. for this purpose they suggested and experimented with the construction of situations, namely the setting up of environments favorable for the fulfillment of such desires. using methods drawn from the arts, they developed a series of experimental fields of study for the construction of such situations, like unitary urbanism and psychogeography.

they fought against the main obstacle on the fulfillment of such superior passional living, identified by them in advanced capitalism. their theoretical work peaked on the highly influential book the society of the spectacle by guy debord. debord argued in 1967 that spectacular features like mass media and advertising have a central role in an advanced capitalist society, which is to show a fake reality in order to mask the real capitalist degradation of human life. to overthrow such a system, the situationist international supported the may '68 revolts, and asked the workers to occupy the factories and to run them with direct democracy, through workers' councils composed by instantly revocable delegates.

after publishing in the last issue of the magazine an analysis of the may 1968 revolts, and the strategies that will need to be adopted in future revolutions,[33] the si was dissolved in 1972.[34]
main article: autonomism
antonio negri, main theorist of italian autonomism

autonomism refers to a set of left-wing political and social movements and theories close to the socialist movement. as an identifiable theoretical system it first emerged in italy in the 1960s from workerist (operaismo) communism. later, post-marxist and anarchist tendencies became significant after influence from the situationists, the failure of italian far-left movements in the 1970s, and the emergence of a number of important theorists including antonio negri, who had contributed to the 1969 founding of potere operaio, mario tronti, paolo virno, etc.

through translations made available by danilo montaldi and others, the italian autonomists drew upon previous activist research in the united states by the johnson-forest tendency and in france by the group socialisme ou barbarie.

it influenced the german and dutch autonomen, the worldwide social centre movement, and today is influential in italy, france, and to a lesser extent the english-speaking countries. those who describe themselves as autonomists now vary from marxists to post-structuralists and anarchists. the autonomist marxist and autonomen movements provided inspiration to some on the revolutionary left in english speaking countries, particularly among anarchists, many of whom have adopted autonomist tactics. some english-speaking anarchists even describe themselves as autonomists. the italian operaismo movement also influenced marxist academics such as harry cleaver, john holloway, steve wright, and nick dyer-witheford.
non-marxist schools of communism

the dominant forms of communism are based on marxism, but non-marxist versions of communism (such as christian communism and anarchist communism) also exist.
main article: anarchist communism
peter kropotkin, main theorist of anarcho-communism

anarchist communism (also known as libertarian communism) is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, private property, and capitalism in favour of common ownership of the means of production,[35][36] direct democracy and a horizontal network of voluntary associations and workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: "from each according to his ability, to each according to his need".[37][38]

anarcho-communism differs from marxism rejecting its view about the need for a state socialism phase before building communism. the main anarcho-communist theorist peter kropotkin argued "that a revolutionary society should “transform itself immediately into a communist society,”, that is, should go immediately into what marx had regarded as the “more advanced,” completed, phase of communism."[39] in this way it tries to avoid the reappearence of "class divisions and the need for a state to oversee everything".[39]

some forms of anarchist communism such as insurrectionary anarchism are egoist and strongly influenced by radical individualism,[40][41][42] believing that anarchist communism does not require a communitarian nature at all. most anarcho-communists view anarcho-communism as a way of reconciling the opposition between the individual and society[43][44][45]

to date in human history, the best known examples of an anarchist communist society, established around the ideas as they exist today, that received worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon, are the anarchist territories during the spanish revolution and the free territory during the russian revolution. through the efforts and influence of the spanish anarchists during the spanish revolution within the spanish civil war, starting in 1936 anarchist communism existed in most of aragon, parts of the levante and andalusia, as well as in the stronghold of anarchist catalonia before being brutally crushed by the combined forces of the authoritarian regime that won the war, hitler, mussolini, spanish communist party repression (backed by the ussr) as well as economic and armaments blockades from the capitalist countries and the spanish republic itself. during the russian revolution, anarchists such as nestor makhno worked to create and defend—through the revolutionary insurrectionary army of ukraine—anarchist communism in the free territory of the ukraine from 1919 before being conquered by the bolsheviks in 1921.
christian communism

christian communism is a form of religious communism centred on christianity. it is a theological and political theory based upon the view that the teachings of jesus christ urge christians to support communism as the ideal social system. christian communists trace the origins of their practice to teachings in the new testament, such as this one from acts of the apostles at chapter 2 and verses 42, 44, and 45:

42 and they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and in fellowship ... 44 and all that believed were together, and had all things in common; 45 and sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need. (king james version)

christian communism can be seen as a radical form of christian socialism. also, because many christian communists have formed independent stateless communes in the past, there is also a link between christian communism and christian anarchism. christian communists may or may not agree with various parts of marxism.

christian communists also share some of the political goals of marxists, for example replacing capitalism with socialism, which should in turn be followed by communism at a later point in the future. however, christian communists sometimes disagree with marxists (and particularly with leninists) on the way a socialist or communist society should be organized.
communist (red) and formerly communist (orange) countries of the world.
main article: history of communism

"communism differs from all previous movements in that it overturns the basis of all earlier relations of production and intercourse, and for the first time consciously treats all natural premises as the creatures of hitherto existing men, strips them of their natural character and subjugates them to the power of the united individuals."

— karl marx, the german ideology, 1845[46]

early communism
further information: primitive communism, religious communism, and utopian socialism

the idea of a classless society first emerged in ancient greece.[47] plato in his the republic described it as a state where people shared all their property, wives, and children:
“ the private and individual is altogether banished from life and things which are by nature private, such as eyes and ears and hands, have become common, and in some way see and hear and act in common, and all men express praise and fell joy and sorrow on the same occasions[47] ”

—plato, the republic

karl heinrich marx saw primitive communism as the original, hunter-gatherer state of humankind from which it arose. for marx, only after humanity was capable of producing surplus, did private property develop.

in the history of western thought, certain elements of the idea of a society based on common ownership of property can be traced back to ancient times .[citation needed] examples include the spartacus slave revolt in rome.[48] the 5th century mazdak movement in what is now iran has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, criticizing the institution of private property and for striving for an egalitarian society.[49]

at one time or another, various small communist communities existed, generally under the inspiration of scripture.[50] in the medieval christian church, for example, some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and other property (see religious communism and christian communism). these groups often believed that concern with private property was a distraction from religious service to god and neighbour.[citation needed]

communist thought has also been traced back to the work of 16th century english writer thomas more. in his treatise utopia (1516), more portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason.[citation needed] in the 17th century, communist thought arguably surfaced again in england. in 17th century england, a puritan religious group known as the diggers advocated the abolition of private ownership of land.[51] eduard bernstein, in his 1895 cromwell and communism[52] argued that several groupings in the english civil war, especially the diggers espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals, and that oliver cromwell's attitude to these groups was at best ambivalent and often hostile.[53]

criticism of the idea of private property continued into the age of enlightenment of the 18th century, through such thinkers as jean jacques rousseau in france.[citation needed] later, following the upheaval of the french revolution, communism emerged as a political doctrine.[54] françois noël babeuf, in particular, espoused the goals of common ownership of land and total economic and political equality among citizens.[citation needed]

various social reformers in the early 19th century founded communities based on common ownership. but unlike many previous communist communities, they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis.[50] notable among them were robert owen, who founded new harmony in indiana (1825), and charles fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the united states such as brook farm (1841–47).[50] later in the 19th century, karl marx described these social reformers as "utopian socialists" to contrast them with his program of "scientific socialism" (a term coined by friedrich engels). other writers described by marx as "utopian socialists" included saint-simon.

in its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement of 19th century europe. as the industrial revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who laboured under often-hazardous conditions. foremost among these critics were the german philosopher karl marx and his associate friedrich engels. in 1848, marx and engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet the communist manifesto.[50] engels, who lived in manchester, observed the organization of the chartist movement (see history of british socialism), while marx departed from his university comrades to meet the proletariat in france and germany.[citation needed]
growth of modern communism
vladimir lenin after his return to petrograd.
the maximum territorial extent of countries influenced by the soviet union, after the cuban revolution of 1959 and before the official sino–soviet split of 1961.
main article: history of communism

in the late 19th century, russian marxism developed a distinct character. the first major figure of russian marxism was georgi plekhanov. underlying the work of plekhanov was the assumption that russia, less urbanized and industrialized than western europe, had many years to go before society would be ready for proletarian revolution to occur, and a transitional period of a bourgeois democratic regime would be required to replace tsarism with a socialist and later communist society. (eb)[citation needed]

in russia, the 1917 october revolution was the first time any party with an avowedly marxist orientation, in this case the bolshevik party, seized state power. the assumption of state power by the bolsheviks generated a great deal of practical and theoretical debate within the marxist movement. marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. russia, however, was one of the poorest countries in europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. marx had explicitly stated that russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeoisie capitalism.[55] other socialists also believed that a russian revolution could be the precursor of workers' revolutions in the west.

the moderate mensheviks opposed lenin's bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed. the bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans "peace, bread, and land" and "all power to the soviets", slogans which tapped the massive public desire for an end to russian involvement in the first world war, the peasants' demand for land reform, and popular support for the soviets.[citation needed]

the usage of the terms "communism" and "socialism" shifted after 1917, when the bolsheviks changed their name to communist party and installed a single party regime devoted to the implementation of socialist policies under leninism.[citation needed] the second international had dissolved in 1916 over national divisions, as the separate national parties that composed it did not maintain a unified front against the war, instead generally supporting their respective nation's role. lenin thus created the third international (comintern) in 1919 and sent the twenty-one conditions, which included democratic centralism, to all european socialist parties willing to adhere. in france, for example, the majority of the french section of the workers' international (sfio) party split in 1921 to form the french section of the communist international (sfic).[citation needed] henceforth, the term "communism" was applied to the objective of the parties founded under the umbrella of the comintern. their program called for the uniting of workers of the world for revolution, which would be followed by the establishment of a dictatorship of the proletariat as well as the development of a socialist economy. ultimately, if their program held, there would develop a harmonious classless society, with the withering away of the state.[citation needed]
self-proclaimed socialist countries within the marxist-leninist or maoist definition in 1980. color-coding indicates communist alignment with the soviet union (red), china (yellow), or independent status (black).

during the russian civil war (1918–1922), the bolsheviks nationalized all productive property and imposed a policy of war communism, which put factories and railroads under strict government control, collected and rationed food, and introduced some bourgeois management of industry. after three years of war and the 1921 kronstadt rebellion, lenin declared the new economic policy (nep) in 1921, which was to give a "limited place for a limited time to capitalism." the nep lasted until 1928, when joseph stalin achieved party leadership, and the introduction of the first five year plan spelled the end of it. following the russian civil war, the bolsheviks formed in 1922 the union of soviet socialist republics (ussr), or soviet union, from the former russian empire.

following lenin's democratic centralism, the communist parties were organized on a hierarchical basis, with active cells of members as the broad base; they were made up only of elite cadres approved by higher members of the party as being reliable and completely subject to party discipline.[56]

after world war ii, communists consolidated power in central and eastern europe, and in 1949, the communist party of china (cpc) led by mao zedong established the people's republic of china, which would later follow its own ideological path of communist development.[citation needed] cuba, north korea, vietnam, laos, cambodia, angola, and mozambique were among the other countries in the third world that adopted or imposed a pro-communist government at some point. by the early 1980s almost one-third of the world's population lived in communist states, including the former soviet union and people's republic of china.

communist states such as the soviet union and china succeeded in becoming industrial and technological powers, challenging the capitalists' powers in the arms race and space race and military conflicts.
cold war years
ussr postage stamp depicting the communist state launching the first artificial satellite sputnik 1.

by virtue of the soviet union's victory in the second world war in 1945, the soviet army had occupied nations not only in central and eastern europe, but also in east asia; as a result, communism as a movement spread to many new countries. this expansion of communism both in europe and asia gave rise to a few different branches of its own, such as maoism.[57]

communism had been vastly strengthened by the winning of many new nations into the sphere of soviet influence and strength in central and eastern europe. governments modelled on soviet communism took power with soviet assistance in bulgaria, czechoslovakia, east germany, poland, hungary and romania. a communist government was also created under marshal tito in yugoslavia, but tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of yugoslavia from the cominform, which had replaced the comintern. titoism, a new branch in the world communist movement, was labelled deviationist. albania also became an independent communist nation after world war ii.[58]

by 1950, the chinese communists held all of mainland china, thus controlling the most populous nation in the world. other areas where rising communist strength provoked dissension and in some cases led to actual fighting through conventional and guerrilla warfare include the korean war, laos, many nations of the middle east and africa, and notably succeeded in the case of the vietnam war against the military power of the united states and its allies. with varying degrees of success, communists attempted to unite with nationalist and socialist forces against what they saw as western imperialism in these poor countries.
fear of communism
a 1947 propaganda book published by the catechetical guild educational society warning of the dangers of a communist revolution.
main article: red scare

with the exception of the contribution in world war ii by the soviet union, china, and the italian resistance movement, communism was seen as a rival, and a threat to western democracies and capitalism for most of the twentieth century.[59] this rivalry peaked during the cold war, as the world's two remaining superpowers, the united states and the soviet union, polarized most of the world into two camps of nations. this was characterized in the west as the free world vs. behind the iron curtain. it supported the spread of their economic and political systems, capitalism vs. communism, and strengthened their military powers. as a result, the camps developed new weapon systems, stockpiled nuclear weapons, and competed in space exploration.

near the beginning of the cold war, on february 9, 1950, senator joseph mccarthy from wisconsin accused 205 americans working in the state department of being card-carrying communists.[60] the fear of communism in the u.s. spurred mccarthyism, aggressive investigations and the red-baiting, blacklisting, jailing and deportation of persons suspected of following communist or other left-wing ideologies. many famous actors and writers were placed on a blacklist from 1950 to 1954, which meant they would not be hired and would be subject to public disdain.[59]
after the dissolution of the soviet union

in 1985, mikhail gorbachev became leader of the soviet union and relaxed central control, in accordance with reform policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring). the soviet union did not intervene as poland, east germany, czechoslovakia, bulgaria, romania, and hungary all abandoned communist rule by 1990. in 1991, the soviet union dissolved.

by the beginning of the 21st century, states controlled by communist parties under a single-party system include the people's republic of china, cuba, laos, vietnam, and informally north korea. communist parties, or their descendant parties, remain politically important in many countries. president dimitris christofias of cyprus is a member of the progressive party of working people, but the country is not run under single-party rule. in south africa, the communist party is a partner in the anc-led government. in india, communists lead the governments of three states, with a combined population of more than 115 million. in nepal, communists hold a majority in the parliament.[61] in brazil, the pcdob is a part of the parliamentary coalition led by the ruling democratic socialist workers' party and is represented in the executive cabinet of dilma rousseff.

the people's republic of china has reassessed many aspects of the maoist legacy; it, along with laos, vietnam, and, to a lesser degree cuba, has reduced state control of the economy in order to stimulate growth. chinese economic reforms started in 1978 under the leadership of deng xiaoping; since then, china has managed to bring down the poverty rate from 53% in the mao era to just 6% in 2001.[62] the people's republic of china runs special economic zones dedicated to market-oriented enterprise, free from central government control. several other communist states have also attempted to implement market-based reforms, including vietnam.
a tableau in a communist rally in kerala, india, of a young farmer and worker.
a communist demonstration in red square, moscow, july 2009.

theories within marxism as to why communism in central and eastern europe was not achieved after socialist revolutions pointed to such elements as the pressure of external capitalist states, the relative backwardness of the societies in which the revolutions occurred, and the emergence of a bureaucratic stratum or class that arrested or diverted the transition press in its own interests. (scott and marshall, 2005) marxist critics of the soviet union, most notably trotsky, referred to the soviet system, along with other communist states, as "degenerated" or "deformed workers' states", arguing that the soviet system fell far short of marx's communist ideal and he claimed the working class was politically dispossessed. the ruling stratum of the soviet union was held to be a bureaucratic caste, but not a new ruling class, despite their political control. anarchists who adhere to participatory economics claim that the soviet union became dominated by powerful intellectual elites who in a capitalist system crown the proletariat's labour on behalf of the bourgeoisie.

non-marxists, in contrast, have often applied the term to any society ruled by a communist party and to any party aspiring to create a society similar to such existing nation-states. in the social sciences, societies ruled by communist parties are distinct for their single party control and their socialist economic bases. while some social and political scientists applied the concept of "totalitarianism" to these societies, others identified possibilities for independent political activity within them,[63][64] and stressed their continued evolution up to the point of the dissolution of the soviet union and its allies in central europe during the late 1980s and early 1990s.[citation needed]

today, marxist revolutionaries are conducting armed insurgencies in india, philippines, peru, bangladesh, iran, turkey, and colombia.[citation needed]
victims of soviet nkvd in lviv, june 1941.
main articles: criticisms of communism, anti-communism, and mass killings under communist regimes
see also criticisms of marxism and criticisms of socialism for a discussion of objections to socialism in general.

some of the primary criticisms of socialism and by extension communism are distorted or absent price signals,[65][66] slow or stagnant technological advance,[67] reduced incentives,[68][69][70] reduced prosperity,[71][72] feasibility,[65][66][67] and its social and political effects.[73][74][75][76][77][78]

part of this criticism extends to the policies adopted by one-party states ruled by communist parties (known as "communist states"). some scholars are specially focused on their human rights records which are claimed to be responsible for famines, purges and warfare resulting in deaths far in excess of previous empires, capitalist or other regimes.[79][80][81] the council of europe in resolution 1481 and international declarations such as the prague declaration on european conscience and communism and the declaration on crimes of communism have condemned some of the actions that resulted in these deaths as crimes.

stéphane courtois argues that communism and national socialism are slightly different totalitarian systems, and that communism is responsible for the murder of around 100 million people in the 20th century. he also argues that nazi repressive methods were largely adopted from soviet methods.[82]
devamını gör...
1189. (Tematik)
the term classical marxism denotes the theory propounded by karl marx and friedrich engels.[citation needed] as such, classical marxism distinguishes between “marxism” as broadly perceived, and “what marx believed”; thus, in 1883, marx wrote to the french labour leader jules guesde and to paul lafargue (marx’s son-in-law) — both of whom claimed to represent marxist principles — accusing them of “revolutionary phrase-mongering” and of denying the value of reformist struggle; from which derives the paraphrase: “if that is marxism, then i am not a marxist”.[4] to which, the us marx scholar hal draper remarked, “there are few thinkers in modern history whose thought has been so badly misrepresented, by marxists and anti-marxists alike”.[5]
[edit] marx and engels
main articles: karl marx and friedrich engels
karl marx and friedrich engels.

karl heinrich marx (5 may 1818—14 march 1883) was a german philosopher, political economist, and socialist revolutionary, who addressed the matters of alienation and exploitation of the working class, the capitalist mode of production, and historical materialism. he is famous for analysing history in terms of class struggle, summarised in the initial line introducing the communist manifesto (1848): “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles”. his ideas were influential in his time, and it was greatly expanded by the successful bolshevik october revolution of 1917 in imperial russia.

friedrich engels (28 november 1820–5 august 1895) was a german political philosopher and karl marx’s co-developer of communist theory. marx and engels met in september 1844; discovering that they shared like views of philosophy and socialism, they collaborated and wrote works such as die heilige familie (the holy family). after the french deported marx from france in january 1845, engels and marx moved to belgium, which then permitted greater freedom of expression than other european countries; later, in january 1846, they returned to brussels to establish the communist correspondence committee.

in 1847, they began writing the communist manifesto (1848), based upon engels’ the principles of communism; six weeks later, they published the 12,000-word pamphlet in february 1848. in march, belgium expelled them, and they moved to cologne, where they published the neue rheinische zeitung, a politically radical newspaper. again, by 1849, they had to leave cologne for london. the prussian authorities pressured the british government to expel marx and engels, but prime minister lord john russell refused.

after karl marx’s death in 1883, friedrich engels became the editor and translator of marx’s writings. with his origins of the family, private property, and the state (1884) — analysing monogamous marriage as guaranteeing male social domination of women, a concept analogous, in communist theory, to the capitalist class’s economic domination of the working class — engels made intellectually significant contributions to feminist theory and marxist feminism.
[edit] early intellectual influences
main article: influences on karl marx

different types of thinkers influenced the development of classical marxism; the primary influences derive from:

german philosophers: immanuel kant, g. w. f. hegel, ludwig feuerbach et al.
british political economists: adam smith & david ricardo et al.
french social theorists: jean-jacques rousseau; charles fourier; henri de saint-simon; pierre-joseph proudhon; flora tristan; louis blanc et al.

and secondary influences derive from:

ancient materialism, e.g. epicurus, lucretius et al.
giambattista vico
lewis morgan
charles darwin

[edit] concepts
[edit] historical materialism

"the discovery of the materialist conception of history, or rather, the consistent continuation and extension of materialism into the domain of social phenomenon, removed two chief defects of earlier historical theories. in the first place, they at best examined only the ideological motives of the historical activity of human beings, without grasping the objective laws governing the development of the system of social relations... in the second place, the earlier theories did not cover the activities of the masses of the population, whereas historical materialism made it possible for the first time to study with the accuracy of the natural sciences the social conditions of the life of the masses and the changes in these conditions."
russian marxist theoretician and revolutionary vladimir lenin, 1913.[6]

"society does not consist of individuals, but expresses the sum of interrelations, the relations within which these individuals stand."

— karl marx, grundrisse, 1858[7]

the historical materialist theory of history, also synonymous to “the economic interpretation of history” (a coinage by eduard bernstein),[8] looks for the causes of societal development and change in the collective ways humans use to make the means for living. the social features of a society (social classes, political structures, ideologies) derive from economic activity; “base and superstructure” is the metaphoric common term describing this historic condition.

the base and superstructure metaphor explains that the totality of social relations regarding “the social production of their existence” i.e. civil society forms a society’s economic base, from which rises a superstructure of political and legal institutions i.e. political society. the base corresponds to the social consciousness (politics, religion, philosophy, etc.), and it conditions the superstructure and the social consciousness. a conflict between the development of material productive forces and the relations of production provokes social revolutions, thus, the resultant changes to the economic base will lead to the transformation of the superstructure.[9] this relationship is reflexive; the base determines the superstructure, in the first instance, and remains the foundation of a form of social organization which then can act again upon both parts of the base and superstructure, whose relationship is dialectical, not literal.[citation needed][clarification needed]

marx considered that these socio-economic conflicts have historically manifested themselves as distinct stages (one transitional) of development in western europe.[10]

primitive communism: as in co-operative tribal societies.
slave society: a development of tribal progression to city-state; aristocracy is born.
feudalism: aristocrats are the ruling class; merchants evolve into capitalists.
capitalism: capitalists are the ruling class, who create and employ the proletariat.
socialism: workers gain class consciousness, and via proletarian revolution depose the capitalist dictatorship of the bourgeoisie, replacing it in turn with dictatorship of the proletariat through which the socialization of the means of production can be realized.
communism: a classless and stateless society.

[edit] criticism of capitalism

"we are, in marx's terms, 'an ensemble of social relations' and we live our lives at the core of the intersection of a number of unequal social relations based on hierarchically interrelated structures which, together, define the historical specificity of the capitalist modes of production and reproduction and underlay their observable manifestations."
—martha e. gimenez, marxism and class, gender and race: rethinking the trilogy[11]

according to the marxist theoretician and revolutionary vladimir lenin, "the principal content of marxism" was "marx's economic doctrine".[12] marx believed that the capitalist bourgeois and their economists were promoting what he saw as the lie that "the interests of the capitalist and those of the worker are... one and the same"; he believed that they did this by purporting the concept that "the fastest possible growth of productive capital" was best not only for the wealthy capitalists but also for the workers because it provided them with employment.[13]

a person is exploited if he or she performs more labour than necessary to produce the goods that he consumes; likewise, a person is an exploiter if he or she performs less labour than is necessary to produce the goods that he consumes.[14] exploitation is a matter of surplus labour — the amount of labour one performs beyond what one receives in goods. exploitation has been a socio-economic feature of every class society, and is one of the principal features distinguishing the social classes. the power of one social class to control the means of production enables its exploitation of the other classes.

in capitalism, the labour theory of value is the operative concern; the value of a commodity equals the socially necessary labour time required to produce it. under that condition, surplus value (the difference between the value produced and the value received by a labourer) is synonymous with the term “surplus labour”; thus, capitalist exploitation is realised as deriving surplus value from the worker.

in pre-capitalist economies, exploitation of the worker was achieved via physical coercion. in the capitalist mode of production, that result is more subtly achieved; because the worker does not own the means of production, he or she must voluntarily enter into an exploitive work relationship with a capitalist in order to earn the necessities of life. the worker's entry into such employment is voluntary in that he or she chooses which capitalist to work for. however, the worker must work or starve. thus, exploitation is inevitable, and the "voluntary" nature of a worker participating in a capitalist society is illusory.

alienation denotes the estrangement of people from their humanity (german: gattungswesen, “species-essence”, “species-being”), which is a systematic result of capitalism. under capitalism, the fruits of production belong to the employers, who expropriate the surplus created by others, and so generate alienated labourers.[15] alienation objectively describes the worker’s situation in capitalism — his or her self-awareness of this condition is not prerequisite.

the identity of a social class derives from its relationship to the means of production; marx describes the social classes in capitalist societies:

proletariat: “those individuals who sell their labour power, and who, in the capitalist mode of production, do not own the means of production“.[citation needed] the capitalist mode of production establishes the conditions enabling the bourgeoisie to exploit the proletariat because the workers’ labour generates a surplus value greater than the workers’ wages.
bourgeoisie: those who “own the means of production” and buy labour power from the proletariat, thus exploiting the proletariat; they subdivide as bourgeoisie and the petit bourgeoisie.
petit bourgeoisie are those who employ labourers, but who also work, i.e. small business owners, peasant landlords, trade workers et al. marxism predicts that the continual reinvention of the means of production eventually would destroy the petit bourgeoisie, degrading them from the middle class to the proletariat.
lumpenproletariat: criminals, vagabonds, beggars, et al., who have no stake in the economy, and so sell their labour to the highest bidder.
landlords: an historically important social class who retain some wealth and power.
peasantry and farmers: a disorganised class incapable of effecting socio-economic change, most of whom would enter the proletariat, and some become landlords.

class consciousness denotes the awareness — of itself and the social world — that a social class possesses, and its capacity to rationally act in their best interests; hence, class consciousness is required before they can effect a successful revolution.

without defining ideology,[16] marx used the term to denote the production of images of social reality; according to engels, “ideology is a process accomplished by the so-called thinker consciously, it is true, but with a false consciousness. the real motive forces impelling him remain unknown to him; otherwise it simply would not be an ideological process. hence he imagines false or seeming motive forces”.[17] because the ruling class controls the society’s means of production, the superstructure of society, the ruling social ideas are determined by the best interests of said ruling class. in the german ideology, “the ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas, i.e. the class which is the ruling material force of society, is, at the same time, its ruling intellectual force”.[18]

the term political economy originally denoted the study of the conditions under which economic production was organised in the capitalist system. in marxism, political economy studies the means of production, specifically of capital, and how that manifests as economic activity.
[edit] revolution, socialism and communism

marxists believe that the transition from capitalism to socialism is an inevitable part of the development of human society; as lenin stated, "it is evident that marx deduces the inevitability of the transformation of capitalist society [into a socialist society] wholly and exclusively from the economic law of motion of contemporary society."[19]

marxists believe that a socialist society will be far better for the majority of the populace than its capitalist counterpart, for instance, prior to the russian revolution of 1917, lenin wrote that "the socialization of production is bound to lead to the conversion of the means of production into the property of society... this conversion will directly result in an immense increase in productivity of labour, a reduction of working hours, and the replacement of the remnants, the ruins of small-scale, primitive, disunited production by collective and improved labour."[20]
[edit] marxism in academia

some marxists have criticised the academic institutionalisation of marxism for being too detached from political action. for instance, zimbabwean trotskyist alex callinicos, himself a professional academic, stated that "its practitioners remind one of narcissus, who in the greek legend fell in love with his own reflection... sometimes it is necessary to devote time to clarifying and developing the concepts that we use, but for western marxists this has become an end in itself. the result is a body of writings incomprehensible to all but a tiny minority of highly qualified scholars."[21]
[edit] political marxism
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since marx's death in 1883, various groups around the world have appealed to marxism as the theoretical basis for their politics and policies, which have often proved to be dramatically different and conflicting[citation needed]. one of the first major political splits occurred between the advocates of 'reformism', who argued that the transition to socialism could occur within existing bourgeois parliamentarian frameworks, and communists, who argued that the transition to a socialist society required a revolution and the dissolution of the capitalist state. the 'reformist' tendency, later known as social democracy, came to be dominant in most of the parties affiliated to the second international and these parties supported their own governments in the first world war[citation needed]. this issue caused the communists to break away, forming their own parties which became members of the third international[citation needed].

the following countries had governments at some point in the 20th century who at least nominally adhered to marxism:[22] albania, afghanistan, angola, benin, bulgaria, chile, china, republic of congo, cuba, czechoslovakia, east germany, ethiopia, grenada, hungary, laos, moldova, mongolia, mozambique, nepal, nicaragua, north korea, poland, romania, russia, the ussr and its republics, south yemen, yugoslavia, venezuela, vietnam. in addition, the indian states of kerala, tripura and west bengal have had marxist governments, but change takes place in the government due to electoral process. some of these governments such as in venezuela, nicaragua, chile, moldova and parts of india have been democratic in nature and maintained regular multiparty elections.
[edit] history

the 1917 october revolution, led by vladimir lenin, was the first large scale attempt to put marxist ideas about a workers' state into practice. the new government faced counter-revolution, civil war and foreign intervention.[23] lenin consistently explained "this elementary truth of marxism, that the victory of socialism requires the joint efforts of workers in a number of advanced countries" (lenin, sochineniya (works), 5th ed vol xliv p418.) it could not be developed in russia in isolation, he argued, but needed to be spread internationally.

the 1917 october revolution did help inspire a revolutionary wave over the years that followed,[24][25][26][27] with the development of communist parties worldwide, but without success in the vital advanced capitalist countries of western europe. socialist revolution in germany and other western countries failed, leaving the soviet union on its own. an intense period of debate and stopgap solutions ensued, war communism and the new economic policy (nep). lenin died and joseph stalin gradually assumed control, eliminating rivals and consolidating power as the soviet union faced the events of the 1930s and its global crisis-tendencies. amidst the geopolitical threats which defined the period and included the probability of invasion, he instituted a ruthless program of industrialization which, while successful,[28] was executed at great cost in human suffering, along with long-term environmental devastation.[28]

modern followers of leon trotsky maintain that as predicted by lenin, trotsky, and others already in the 1920s, stalin's "socialism in one country" was unable to maintain itself, and according to some marxist critics, the ussr ceased to show the characteristics of a socialist state long before its formal dissolution.

in the 1920s the economic calculation debate between austrian economists and marxist economists took place. the austrians claimed that marxism is flawed because prices could not be set to recognize opportunity costs of factors of production, and so socialism could not make rational decisions.

the kuomintang party, a chinese nationalist revolutionary party, had marxist members who opposed the chinese communist party. they viewed the chinese revolution in different terms than the communists, claiming that china already went past its feudal stage and in a stagnation period rather than in another mode of production. these marxists in the kuomintang opposed the chinese communist party ideology.[29]

following world war ii, marxist ideology, often with soviet military backing, spawned a rise in revolutionary communist parties all over the world. some of these parties were eventually able to gain power, and establish their own version of a marxist state. such nations included the people's republic of china, vietnam, romania, east germany, albania, cambodia, ethiopia, south yemen, yugoslavia, cuba, and others. in some cases, these nations did not get along. rifts occurred between the soviet union and china,[30] as well as soviet union and yugoslavia (in 1948), whose leaders disagreed on certain elements of marxism and how it should be implemented into society.[31]

many of these self-proclaimed marxist nations (often styled people's republics) eventually became authoritarian states, with stagnating economies. this caused some debate about whether marxism was doomed in practise or these nations were in fact not led by "true marxists". critics of marxism speculated that perhaps marxist ideology itself was to blame for the nations' various problems. followers of the currents within marxism which opposed stalin, principally cohered around leon trotsky, tended to locate the failure at the level of the failure of world revolution: for communism to have succeeded, they argue, it needed to encompass all the international trading relationships that capitalism had previously developed.

the chinese experience seems to be unique. rather than falling under a single family's self-serving and dynastic interpretation of marxism as happened in north korea and before 1989 in eastern europe, the chinese government — after the end of the struggles over the mao legacy in 1980 and the ascent of deng xiaoping — seems to have solved the succession crises[citation needed] that have plagued self-proclaimed leninist governments since the death of lenin himself. key to this success is another leninism which is a nep (new economic policy) writ very large; lenin's own nep of the 1920s was the "permission" given to markets including speculation to operate by the party which retained final control. the russian experience in perestroika was that markets under socialism were so opaque as to be both inefficient and corrupt but especially after china's application to join the wto this does not seem to apply universally.

the death of "marxism" in china has been prematurely announced but since the hong kong handover in 1997, the beijing leadership has clearly retained final say over both commercial and political affairs[citation needed].

in 1991 the soviet union was dismantled and the new russian state, alongside the other emerging republics, ceased to identify themselves with marxism. other nations around the world followed suit. since then, radical marxism or communism has generally ceased to be a prominent political force in global politics, and has largely been replaced by more moderate versions of democratic socialism—or, more commonly, by neoliberal capitalism. marxism has also had to engage with the rise in the environmental movement. theorists including joel kovel and michael löwy have synthesized marxism, socialism, ecology and environmentalism into an ideology known as eco-socialism.[32]
[edit] social democracy
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social democracy is a political ideology that emerged in the late 19th and early 20th century. many parties in the second half of the 19th century described themselves as social democratic, such as the british social democratic federation, and the russian social democratic labour party. in most cases these were revolutionary socialist or marxist groups, who were not only seeking to introduce socialism, but also democracy in un-democratic countries. many social democrats reject the idea that socialism can be accomplished only through class conflict, revolution and dictatorship of the proletariat.

the modern social democratic current came into being through a break within the socialist movement in the early 20th century, between two groups holding different views on the ideas of karl marx. many related movements, including pacifism, anarchism, and syndicalism, arose at the same time (often by splitting from the main socialist movement, but also through the emergence of new theories) and had various, quite different objections to marxism. the social democrats argued that socialism should be achieved through evolution rather than revolution. such views were strongly opposed by the revolutionary socialists,[33][34] who argued that any attempt to reform capitalism was doomed to fail, because the reformists would be gradually corrupted and eventually turn into capitalists themselves.

despite their differences, the reformist and revolutionary branches of socialism remained united until the outbreak of world war i. the war proved to be the final straw that pushed the tensions between them to breaking point[citation needed]. the reformist socialists supported their respective national governments in the war, a fact that was seen by the revolutionary socialists as outright treason against the working class (since it betrayed the principle that the workers "have no nation", and the fact that usually the lowest classes are the ones sent into the war to fight, and die, putting the cause at the side)[citation needed]. bitter arguments ensued within socialist parties, as for example between eduard bernstein (reformist socialist) and rosa luxemburg (revolutionary socialist) within the social democratic party of germany (spd). eventually, after the russian revolution of 1917, most of the world's socialist parties fractured. the reformist socialists kept the name "social democrats", while the revolutionary socialists began calling themselves "communists", and soon formed the modern communist movement, the comintern.

since the 1920s, doctrinal differences have been constantly growing between social democrats and communists (who themselves are not unified on the way to achieve socialism), and social democracy is mostly used as a specifically central european label for labour parties since then, especially in germany and the netherlands and especially since the 1959 godesberg program of the german spd that rejected the praxis of class struggle altogether.
[edit] socialism
main articles: socialism and socialism (marxism)
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v · d · e

the term "socialism" could be used to describe two fundamentally different ideologies - democratic socialism and marxist-leninist socialism. while marxist-leninists (trotskyists, stalinists, and maoists) are often described as communists in the contemporary media, they are not recognized as such academically or by themselves.[35] the marxist-leninists sought to work towards the workers' utopia in marxist ideology by first creating a socialist state, which historically had almost always been a single-party dictatorship. on the other hand, democratic socialists attempt to work towards an ideal state by social reform and are often little different from social democrats, with the democratic socialists having a more leftist stance.

the marxist-leninist form of government has been in decline since the dissolution of the soviet union and its satellite states. very few countries have governments which describe themselves as socialist. as of 2011, laos, vietnam, nepal, cuba, and the people's republic of china had governments in power which describe themselves as socialist in the marxist sense[citation needed].

on the contrary, electoral parties which describe themselves as socialist or democratic socialist are on the rise, joined together by international organizations such as the socialist international and the fourth international. parties described as socialist are currently dominant in the democracies of the developing world and serve as the ruling party or the main opposition party in most european democracies. eco-socialism, and green politics with a strong leftist tinge, are on the rise in european democracies.

the characterization of a party or government often has little to do with its actual economical and social platform. the government of mainland china, which describes itself as socialist, allows a large private sector to flourish and is socially conservative compared to most western democracies. a more specific example is universal health-care, which is a trademark issue of many european socialist parties but does not exist in mainland china. therefore, the historical and cultural aspects of a movement must be taken into context in order for one to arrive at an accurate conclusion of its political ideology from its nominal characterization.
[edit] communism
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main article: communist state

a number of states declared an allegiance to the principles of marxism and have been ruled by self-described communist parties, either as a single-party state or a single list, which includes formally several parties, as was the case in the german democratic republic. due to the dominance of the communist party in their governments, these states are often called "communist states" by western political scientists. however, they have described themselves as "socialist", reserving the term "communism" for a future classless society,[36] in which the state would no longer be necessary (on this understanding of communism, "communist state" would be an oxymoron) – for instance, the ussr was the union of soviet socialist republics.

communist governments have historically been characterized by state ownership of productive resources in a planned economy and sweeping campaigns of economic restructuring such as nationalization of industry and land reform (often focusing on collective farming or state farms.) while they promote collective ownership of the means of production, communist governments have been characterized by a strong state apparatus in which decisions are made by the ruling communist party. dissident 'authentic' communists have characterized the soviet model as state socialism or state capitalism.
[edit] marxism–leninism
main articles: marxism–leninism and leninism

marxism-leninism, strictly speaking, refers to the version of marxism developed by vladimir lenin known as leninism. however, in various contexts, different (and sometimes opposing) political groups have used the term "marxism–leninism" to describe the ideologies that they claimed to be upholding. the core ideological features of marxism-leninism are those of marxism and leninism, that is to say, belief in the necessity of a violent overthrow of capitalism through communist revolution, to be followed by a dictatorship of the proletariat as the first stage of moving towards communism, and the need for a vanguard party to lead the proletariat in this effort. those who view themselves as marxist-leninists, however, vary with regards to the leaders and thinkers that they choose to uphold as progressive (and to what extent)[citation needed].

leninism holds that capitalism can only be overthrown by revolutionary means; that is, any attempts to reform capitalism from within, such as fabianism and non-revolutionary forms of democratic socialism, are doomed to fail.[36] the first goal of a leninist party is to educate the proletariat, so as to remove the various modes of false consciousness the bourgeois have instilled in them, instilled in order to make them more docile and easier to exploit economically, such as religion and nationalism[citation needed]. once the proletariat has gained class consciousness the party will coordinate the proletariat's total might to overthrow the existing government, thus the proletariat will seize all political and economic power. lastly the proletariat (thanks to their education by the party) will implement a dictatorship of the proletariat which would bring upon them socialism, the lower phase of communism. after this, the party would essentially dissolve as the entire proletariat is elevated to the level of revolutionaries.

the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to the absolute power of the working class. it is governed by a system of proletarian direct democracy, in which workers hold political power through local councils known as soviets.
[edit] trotskyism
main article: trotskyism

trotskyism is the theory of marxism as advocated by leon trotsky. trotsky considered himself a bolshevik-leninist, arguing for the establishment of a vanguard party. he considered himself an advocate of orthodox marxism. his politics differed sharply from those of stalin or mao, most importantly in declaring the need for an international "permanent revolution". numerous groups around the world continue to describe themselves as trotskyist and see themselves as standing in this tradition, although they have diverse interpretations of the conclusions to be drawn from this.

trotsky advocated proletarian revolution as set out in his theory of "permanent revolution", and he argued that in countries where the bourgeois-democratic revolution had not triumphed already (in other words, in places that had not yet implemented a capitalist democracy, such as russia before 1917), it was necessary that the proletariat make it permanent by carrying out the tasks of the social revolution (the "socialist" or "communist" revolution) at the same time, in an uninterrupted process. trotsky believed that a new socialist state would not be able to hold out against the pressures of a hostile capitalist world unless socialist revolutions quickly took hold in other countries as well, especially in the industrial powers with a developed proletariat.

on the political spectrum of marxism, trotskyists are considered to be on the left. they fervently support democracy, oppose political deals with the imperialist powers, and advocate a spreading of the revolution until it becomes global.

trotsky developed the theory that the russian workers' state had become a "bureaucratically degenerated workers' state". capitalist rule had not been restored, and nationalized industry and economic planning, instituted under lenin, were still in effect[citation needed]. however, the state was controlled by a bureaucratic caste with interests hostile to those of the working class. trotsky defended the soviet union against attack from imperialist powers and against internal counter-revolution, but called for a political revolution within the ussr to restore socialist democracy. he argued that if the working class did not take power away from the stalinist bureaucracy, the bureaucracy would restore capitalism in order to enrich itself[citation needed]. in the view of many trotskyists, this is exactly what has happened since the beginning of glasnost and perestroika in the ussr. some[who?] argue that the adoption of market socialism by the people's republic of china has also led to capitalist counter-revolution[citation needed]. most modern trotskyist organisations are organised internationally, such as the international marxist tendency, international socialist tendency and the committee for a worker's international. they are mostly rather small groupings.
[edit] maoism
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maoism or mao zedong thought (simplified chinese: 毛泽东思想; traditional chinese: 毛澤東思想; pinyin: máo zédōng sīxiǎng), is a variant of marxism–leninism derived from the teachings of the chinese communist leader mao zedong (wade-giles transliteration: "mao tse-tung").

the term "mao zedong thought" has always been the preferred term by the communist party of china, and the word "maoism" has never been used in its english-language publications except pejoratively. likewise, maoist groups[which?] outside china have usually called themselves marxist-leninist rather than maoist, a reflection of mao's view that he did not change, but only developed, marxism-leninism. however, some[who?] maoist groups believing mao's theories to have been sufficiently substantial additions to the basics of the marxist canon, call themselves "marxist-leninist-maoist" (mlm) or simply "maoist".

in the people's republic of china, mao zedong thought is part of the official doctrine of the communist party of china, but since the 1978 beginning of deng xiaoping's market economy-oriented reforms, the concept of "socialism with chinese characteristics" has come to the forefront of chinese politics, chinese economic reform has taken hold, and the official definition and role of mao's original ideology in the prc has been radically altered and reduced (see history of china).

unlike the earlier forms of marxism-leninism in which the urban proletariat was seen as the main source of revolution, and the countryside was largely ignored, mao believed that peasantry could be the main force behind a revolution, led by the proletariat and a vanguard communist party. the model for this was of course the chinese communist rural protracted people's war of the 1920s and 1930s, which eventually brought the communist party of china to power[citation needed]. furthermore, unlike other forms of marxism-leninism in which large-scale industrial development was seen as a positive force, maoism made all-round rural development the priority[citation needed].

mao felt that this strategy made sense during the early stages of socialism in a country in which most of the people were peasants. unlike most other political ideologies, including other socialist and marxist ones, maoism contains an integral military doctrine and explicitly connects its political ideology with military strategy. in maoist thought, "political power grows from the barrel of the gun" (a famous quote by mao), and the peasantry can be mobilized to undertake a "people's war" of armed struggle involving guerrilla warfare in three stages.
[edit] left communism
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left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the communist left, which criticizes the political ideas of the bolsheviks from a position that is asserted to be more authentically marxist and proletarian than the views of leninism held by the communist international after its first two congresses.

two major traditions can be observed within left communism: the dutch-german tradition; and the italian tradition. the political positions those traditions have in common are a shared opposition to what is termed frontism, nationalism, all kinds of national liberation movements and parliamentarianism and there is an underlying commonality at a level of abstract theory. crucially, left communist groups from both traditions tend to identify elements of commonality in each other[vague].

the historical origins of left communism can be traced to the period before the first world war, but it only came into focus after 1918 . all[according to whom?] left communists were supportive of the october revolution in russia[citation needed], but retained a critical view of its development. some[which?], however, would in later years come to reject the idea that the revolution had a proletarian or socialist nature, asserting that it had simply carried out the tasks of the bourgeois revolution by creating a state capitalist system[citation needed].

left communism first came into being as a clear movement in or around 1918[citation needed]. its essential features were: a stress on the need to build a communist party entirely separate from the reformist and centrist elements who were seen as having betrayed socialism in 1914, opposition to all but the most restricted participation in elections, and an emphasis on the need for revolutionaries to move on the offensive[citation needed]. apart from that, there was little in common between the various wings. only the italians[original research?] accepted the need for electoral work at all for a very short period of time, and the german-dutch, italian and russian wings opposed the "right of nations to self-determination", which they denounced as a form of bourgeois nationalism.
[edit] dispute that the soviet union was marxist

marx defined "communism" as a classless, egalitarian and stateless society. to marx, the notion of a communist state would have seemed an oxymoron,[37][38][39] as he defined communism as the phase reached when class society and the state had already been abolished. once the lower stage towards communism, commonly referred to as socialism, had been established, society would develop new social relations over the course of several generations, reaching what marx called the higher phase of communism when not only bourgeois relations but every class social relations had been abandoned. such a development has yet to occur in any historical self-claimed socialist state.[37][38][39]

even within the stalinist state at its height, there were repressed[37] expressions of marxist orthodoxy, revealed after the fall of the ussr, arguing that it had developed new class structures: those who are in government and therefore have power (sometimes referred to as the political class), and those who are not in government and do not have power, the working class. this is taken to be a different form of capitalism, in which the government, as owner of the means of production, takes on the role formerly played by the capitalist class; this arrangement is referred to as "state capitalism."[37] these statist regimes have generally followed a planned economy model without making a transition to this hypothetical final stage.[40]

some academics such as noam chomsky disputed the claim that the political movements in the former soviet union were marxist.[40] communist governments have historically been characterized by state ownership of productive resources in a planned economy and sweeping campaigns of economic restructuring such as nationalization of industry and land reform (often focusing on collective farming or state farms). while they promote collective ownership of the means of production, communist governments have been characterized by a strong state apparatus in which decisions are made by the ruling communist party. dissident communists have characterized the soviet model as state socialism or state capitalism.
[edit] variants

marxists can interpret the manifesto differently, and therefore all variants cannot be covered in this article.
[edit] marxism-leninism
main article: marxism-leninism

at least in terms of adherents and the impact on the world stage, marxism-leninism, also known colloquially as bolshevism or simply communism is the biggest trend within marxism, easily dwarfing all of the other schools of thought combined.[41] marxism-leninism is a term originally coined by the cpsu in order to denote the ideology that vladimir lenin had built upon the thought of karl marx. there are two broad areas that have set apart marxism-leninism as a school of thought.

first, lenin's followers generally view his additions to the body of marxism as the practical corollary to marx's original theoretical contributions of the 19th century; insofar as they apply under the conditions of advanced capitalism that they found themselves working in. lenin called this time-frame the era of imperialism. for example, joseph stalin wrote that
“ leninism grew up and took shape under the conditions of imperialism, when the contradictions of capitalism had reached an extreme point, when the proletarian revolution had become an immediate practical question, when the old period of preparation of the working class for revolution had arrived at and passed into a new period, that of direct assault on capitalism.[42] ”

the most important consequence of a leninist-style theory of imperialism is the strategic need for workers in the industrialized countries to bloc or ally with the oppressed nations contained within their respective countries' colonies abroad in order to overthrow capitalism. this is the source of the slogan, which shows the leninist conception that not only the proletariat, as is traditional to marxism, are the sole revolutionary force, but all oppressed people:
“ workers and oppressed peoples of the world, unite![43] ”

second, the other distinguishing characteristic of marxism-leninism is how it approaches the question of organization. lenin believed that the traditional model of the social democratic parties of the time, which was a loose, multitendency organization was inadequate for overthrowing the tsarist regime in russia. he proposed a cadre of professional revolutionaries that disciplined itself under the model of democratic centralism.
[edit] marxism-leninism after stalin

for better or worse, marxism-leninism as a body of thought and practice was closely identified with the figure of joseph stalin after the death of lenin. after the death of stalin, the leader of the ussr, nikita khrushchev made several ideological and practical ruptures with his predecessor which lead to the eventual split of marxism-leninism into two main branches, post-stalin "moscow-aligned" communism and anti-revisionism. in turn, these branches evolved into multiple schools of thought over time.
[edit] post-stalin moscow-aligned communism

at the 20th congress of the communist party of the soviet union, khrushchev made several ideological ruptures with his predecessor, joseph stalin. first, khrushchev denounced the so-called cult of personality that had developed around stalin, which ironically enough khrushchev had had a pivotal role in fostering decades earlier. more importantly, however, khrushchev rejected the heretofore orthodox marxist-leninist tenet that class struggle continues even under socialism. rather, the state ought to rule in the name of all classes. a related principle that flowed from the former was the notion of peaceful co-existence, or that the newly emergent socialist bloc could peacefully compete with the capitalist world, solely by developing the productive forces of society.
[edit] eurocommunism

beginning around the 1970s, various communist parties in western europe, such as the partito comunista italiano in italy and the partido comunista de españa under santiago carillo tried to hew to a more independent line from moscow. particularly in italy, they leaned on the theories of antonio gramsci, despite the fact that by 1921 gramsci believed that a communist party in the leninist sense was needed. this trend went by the name eurocommunism.
[edit] anti-revisionism

there are many proponents of marxist-leninism who rejected the theses of khrushchev. they believed that khrushchev was unacceptably altering or "revising" the fundamental tenets of marxism-leninism, a stance from which the label "anti-revisionist" is derived. usually, they are referred to externally by the following epithets, although anti-revisionists typically refer to themselves simply as marxist-leninists.
[edit] maoism

maoism takes its name from mao zedong, the erstwhile leader of the peoples republic of china; it is the variety of anti-revisionism that took inspiration, and in some cases received material support, from china, especially during the mao period. there are several key concepts that were developed by mao. first, mao concurred with stalin that not only does class struggle continue under the dictatorship of the proletariat, it actually accelerates as long as gains are being made by the proletariat at the expense of the disenfranchised bourgeoisie. second, mao developed a strategy for revolution called prolonged people's war in what he termed the semi-feudal countries of the third world. prolonged people's war relied heavily on the peasantry. third, mao wrote many theoretical articles on epistemology and dialectics, which he called contradictions.
[edit] hoxhaism

hoxhaism, so named because of the central contribution of albanian statesman enver hoxha, was closely aligned with the people's republic of china for a number of years, but grew critical of maoism because of the so-called three worlds theory put forth by elements within the communist party of china and because it viewed the actions of chinese leader deng xiaoping unfavorably. ultimately, however, hoxhaism as a trend came to the understanding that socialism had never existed in china at all.
[edit] trotskyism
main article: trotskyism

trotskyism is the usual term for followers of the ideas of russian marxist leon trotsky, the second most prominent leader of the russian revolution. trotsky was a contemporary of lenin from the early years of the russian social democratic labour party, where he led a small trend in competition with both lenin's bolsheviks and the mensheviks; nevertheless trotsky's followers claim to be the heirs of lenin in the same way that mainstream marxist-leninists do. there are several distinguishing characteristics of this school of thought; foremost is the theory of permanent revolution. another shared characteristic between trotskyists is a variety of theoretical justifications for their negative appraisal of the post-lenin soviet union; that is to say, after trotsky was expelled by a majority vote from the cpsu[44] and subsequently from the soviet union. trotsky characterized the government of the ussr after his expulsion as being dominated by a "bureaucratic caste" and called for it to be overthrown.[45] trotskists as a consequence usually advocate the overthrow of socialist governments around the world that are ruled by marxist-leninist parties.
[edit] left communism
main article: left communism

left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the communist left, which criticizes the political ideas of the bolsheviks from a position that is asserted to be more authentically marxist and proletarian than the views of leninism held by the communist international after its first two congresses.

although she lived before left communism became a distinct tendency, rosa luxemburg has been heavily influential for most left communists, both politically and theoretically. proponents of left communism have included herman gorter, anton pannekoek, otto rühle, karl korsch, amadeo bordiga, and paul mattick.

prominent left communist groups existing today include the international communist current and the international bureau for the revolutionary party. also, different factions from the old bordigist international communist party are considered left communist organizations.
[edit] western marxism
main article: western marxism

western marxism is a term used to describe a wide variety of marxist theoreticians based in western and central europe (and more recently north america ), in contrast with philosophy in the soviet union, the socialist federal republic of yugoslavia or the people's republic of china.
[edit] structural marxism
main article: structural marxism

structural marxism is an approach to marxism based on structuralism, primarily associated with the work of the french theorist louis althusser and his students. it was influential in france during the late 1960s and 1970s, and also came to influence philosophers, political theorists and sociologists outside of france during the 1970s.
[edit] autonomist marxism
main article: autonomism

autonomism is a term applied to a variety of social movements around the world, which emphasizes the ability to organize in autonomous and horizontal networks, as opposed to hierarchical structures such as unions or parties. autonomist marxists, including harry cleaver, broaden the definition of the working-class to include salaried and unpaid labour, such as skilled professions and housework; it focuses on the working class in advanced capitalist states as the primary force of change in the construct of capital. modern autonomist theorists such as antonio negri and michael hardt argue that network power constructs are the most effective methods of organization against the neoliberal regime of accumulation, and predict a massive shift in the dynamics of capital into a 21st century empire.
[edit] marxist humanism
main article: marxist humanism

marxist humanism is a branch of marxism that primarily focuses on marx's earlier writings, especially the economic and philosophical manuscripts of 1844 in which marx develops his theory of alienation, as opposed to his later works, which are considered to be concerned more with his structural conception of capitalist society. it was opposed by louis althusser's "antihumanism", who qualified it as a revisionist movement.

marxist humanists contend that ‘marxism’ developed lopsidedly because marx’s early works were unknown until after the orthodox ideas were in vogue – the manuscripts of 1844 were published only in 1932 – and it is necessary to understand marx’s philosophical foundations to understand his latter works properly.
[edit] marxism-deleonism

marxism-deleonism, is a form of syndicalist marxism developed by daniel de leon. de leon was an early leader of the first us socialist political party, the socialist labor party. this party exists to the present day. de leonism lies outside the leninist tradition of communism. the highly decentralized and democratic nature of the proposed de leonist government is in contrast to the democratic centralism of marxism-leninism and what they see as the dictatorial nature of the soviet union. the success of the de leonist plan depends on achieving majority support among the people both in the workplaces and at the polls, in contrast to the leninist notion that a small vanguard party should lead the working class to carry out the revolution. daniel de leon and other de leonist writers have issued frequent polemics against 'democratic socialist' movements, especially the socialist party of america, and consider them to be "reformist" or "bourgeois socialist". de leonists have traditionally refrained from any activity or alliances viewed by them as trying to reform capitalism, though the socialist labor party in de leon's time was active during strikes and such, such as social justice movements.[citation needed]
[edit] marxist feminism
main article: marxist feminism

marxist feminism is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as a way to liberate women. marxist feminism states that private property, which gives rise to economic inequality, dependence, political confusion and ultimately unhealthy social relations between men and women, is the root of women's oppression. according to marxist theory, in capitalist societies the individual is shaped by class relations; that is, people's capacities, needs and interests are seen to be determined by the mode of production that characterises the society they inhabit. marxist feminists see gender inequality as determined ultimately by the capitalist mode of production. gender oppression is class oppression and women's subordination is seen as a form of class oppression which is maintained (like racism) because it serves the interests of capital and the ruling class. marxist feminists have extended traditional marxist analysis by looking at domestic labour as well as wage work in order to support their position.[citation needed]
[edit] criticism
main article: criticisms of marxism

criticisms of marxism have come from the political left, right, and libertarians. democratic socialists and social democrats reject the idea that socialism can be accomplished only through class conflict and a proletarian revolution. many anarchists reject the need for a transitory state phase. other critiques come from an economic standpoint. economists such as friedrich hayek have criticized marxism for allocating resources inefficiently.

some contemporary supporters of marxism argue that many aspects of marxist thought are viable, but that the corpus is incomplete or somewhat outdated in regards to certain aspects of economic, political or social theory. they may therefore combine some marxist concepts with the ideas of other theorists such as max weber: the frankfurt school is one example.

v. k. dmitriev, writing in 1898,[46] ladislaus von bortkiewicz, writing in 1906-07,[47] and subsequent critics have alleged that marx's value theory and law of the tendency of the rate of profit to fall are internally inconsistent. in other words, the critics allege that marx drew conclusions that actually do not follow from his theoretical premises. once these alleged errors are corrected, his conclusion that aggregate price and profit are determined by, and equal to, aggregate value and surplus value no longer holds true. this result calls into question his theory that the exploitation of workers is the sole source of profit.
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1194. (Tematik)
marla singer

a woman whom the narrator meets during a support group. the narrator no longer receives the same release from the groups when he realizes marla is faking her problems just like he is. after he leaves the groups, he meets her again when she becomes tyler's lover. marla is shown to be extremely grungy and uncaring, and sometimes even suicidal. at times though, she does show a softer, more caring side.
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1196. (Tematik)
the endoplasmic reticulum (er) is a eukaryotic organelle that forms an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles, and cisternae within cells. rough endoplasmic reticula synthesize proteins, while smooth endoplasmic reticula synthesize lipids and steroids, metabolize carbohydrates and steroids (but not lipids), and regulate calcium concentration, drug metabolism, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins. sarcoplasmic reticula solely regulate calcium levels.

the lacey membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum were first seen by keith r. porter, albert claude, and ernest f. fullam in 1945.[1]

1 structure
1.1 rough endoplasmic reticulum
1.2 smooth endoplasmic reticulum
1.2.1 sarcoplasmic reticulum
2 functions
2.1 transport of proteins
2.2 other functions
3 see also
4 references
5 external links

1 nucleus 2 nuclear pore 3 rough endoplasmic reticulum (rer) 4 smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ser) 5 ribosome on the rough er 6 proteins that are transported 7 transport vesicle 8 golgi apparatus 9 cis face of the golgi apparatus 10 trans face of the golgi apparatus 11 cisternae of the golgi apparatus

the general structure of the endoplasmic reticulum is an extensive membrane network of cisternae (sac-like structures) held together by the cytoskeleton. the phospholipid membrane encloses a space, the cisternal space (or lumen), which is continuous with the perinuclear space but separate from the cytosol. the functions of the endoplasmic reticulum vary greatly depending on the exact type of endoplasmic reticulum and the type of cell in which it resides. the three varieties are called rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and sarcoplasmic reticulum.

the quantity of rer and ser in a cell can quickly interchange from one type to the other, depending on changing metabolic needs: one type will undergo numerous changes including new proteins embedded in the membranes in order to transform. also, massive changes in the protein content can occur without any noticeable structural changes, depending on the enzymatic needs of the cell (as per the functions listed below).
rough endoplasmic reticulum
an animation showing how a protein destined for the secretory pathway is synthesized into the rough endoplasmic reticulum (which appears at upper right in animation when approximately half of its time has passed).

the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rer) is studded with protein-manufacturing ribosomes giving it a "rough" appearance (hence its name).[2] however, the ribosomes bound to the rer at any one time are not a stable part of this organelle's structure as ribosomes are constantly being bound and released from the membrane. a ribosome only binds to the er once it begins to synthesize a protein destined for the secretory pathway.[3] here, a ribosome in the cytosol begins synthesizing a protein until a signal recognition particle recognizes the pre-piece of 5-15 hydrophobic amino acids preceded by a positively charged amino acid. this signal sequence allows the recognition particle to bind to the ribosome, causing the ribosome to bind to the rer and pass the new protein through the er membrane. the pre-piece is then cleaved off within the lumen of the er and the ribosome released back into the cytosol.

the membrane of the rer is continuous with the outer layer of the nuclear envelope. although there is no continuous membrane between the rer and the golgi apparatus, membrane-bound vesicles shuttle proteins between these two compartments.[4] vesicles are surrounded by coating proteins called copi and copii. copii targets vesicles to the golgi and copi marks them to be brought back to the rer. the rer works in concert with the golgi complex to target new proteins to their proper destinations. a second method of transport out of the er are areas called membrane contact sites, where the membranes of the er and other organelles are held closely together, allowing the transfer of lipids and other small molecules.[5][6]

the rer is key in multiple functions:

lysosomal enzymes with a mannose-6-phosphate marker added in the cis-golgi network
secreted proteins, either secreted constitutively with no tag, or regulated secretion involving clathrin and paired basic amino acids in the signal peptide.
integral membrane proteins that stay imbedded in the membrane as vesicles exit and bind to new membranes. rab proteins are key in targeting the membrane, snap and snare proteins are key in the fusion event.
initial glycosylation as assembly continues. this is either n-linked (o-linking occur in the golgi).
n-linked glycosylation: if the protein is properly folded, glycosyltransferase recognizes the aa sequence nxs or nxt (with the s/t residue phosphorylated) and adds a 14 sugar backbone (2 n-acetylglucosamine, 9 branching mannose, and 3 glucose at the end) to the side chain nitrogen of asn.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ser) has functions in several metabolic processes, including synthesis of lipids and steroids, metabolism of carbohydrates, regulation of calcium concentration, drug detoxification, attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins, and steroid metabolism.[7] it is connected to the nuclear envelope. smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in a variety of cell types (both animal and plant) and it serves different functions in each. the smooth er also contains the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase which converts glucose-6-phosphate to glucose, a step in gluconeogenesis. the ser consists of tubules and vesicles that branch forming a network. in some cells there are dilated areas like the sacs of rer. the network of ser allows increased surface area for the action or storage of key enzymes and the products of these enzymes.
sarcoplasmic reticulum

the sarcoplasmic reticulum (sr), from the greek sarx, ("flesh"), is a special type of smooth er found in smooth and striated muscle. the only structural difference between this organelle and the ser is the medley of proteins they have, both bound to their membranes and drifting within the confines of their lumens. this fundamental difference is indicative of their functions: the ser synthesizes molecules while the sr stores and pumps calcium ions. the sr contains large stores of calcium, which it sequesters and then releases when the muscle cell is stimulated.[8] the sr's release of calcium upon electrical stimulation of the cell plays a major role in excitation-contraction coupling.

the endoplasmic reticulum serves many general functions, including the facilitation of protein folding and the transport of synthesized proteins in sacs called cisternae.

correct folding of newly-made proteins is made possible by several endoplasmic reticulum chaperone proteins, including protein disulfide isomerase (pdi), erp29, the hsp70 family member grp78, calnexin, calreticulin, and the peptidylpropyl isomerase family. only properly-folded proteins are transported from the rough er to the golgi complex.
transport of proteins

secretory proteins, mostly glycoproteins, are moved across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. proteins that are transported by the endoplasmic reticulum and from there throughout the cell are marked with an address tag called a signal sequence. the n-terminus (one end) of a polypeptide chain (i.e., a protein) contains a few amino acids that work as an address tag, which are removed when the polypeptide reaches its destination. proteins that are destined for places outside the endoplasmic reticulum are packed into transport vesicles and moved along the cytoskeleton toward their destination.

@endoplasmik bir kulum alsana

the endoplasmic reticulum is also part of a protein sorting pathway. it is, in essence, the transportation system of the eukaryotic cell. the majority of endoplasmic reticulum resident proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum through a retention motif. this motif is composed of four amino acids at the end of the protein sequence. the most common retention sequence is kdel (lys-asp-glu-leu). however, variation on kdel does occur and other sequences can also give rise to endoplasmic reticulum retention. it is not known if such variation can lead to sub-endoplasmic reticulum localizations. there are three kdel receptors in mammalian cells, and they have a very high degree of sequence identity. the functional differences between these receptors remain to be established.
other functions

insertion of proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane: integral membrane proteins are inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane as they are being synthesized (co-translational translocation). insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane requires the correct topogenic signal sequences in the protein.
glycosylation: glycosylation involves the attachment of oligosaccharides.
disulfide bond formation and rearrangement: disulfide bonds stabilize the tertiary and quaternary structure of many proteins.
drug metabolism: the smooth er is the site at which some drugs are modified by microsomal enzymes which include the cytochrome p450 enzymes.
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